Tag Archives: 19° Century

What to do in the Face of Global Anti-semitism

Since a year or five we do notice that the ten years of the growing ‘right’ has not only brought an aversion against immigrants and/or refugees. More and more the Jewish community became target of bullying and hate actions.

The deathly attack on the Jewish museum in Brussels was something which should have awaken the politicians. In Belgium the Jewish schools and centres could receive extra security measures from the Belgian government. That is nice but should be something that would not be necessary.

All over the West-side of the European continent we do see a growing resistance or hate against the choice of living of the Jews in Europe. Several young Jews found it already better to take everything together and to leave this part of the world to go to live in Israel, even when that meant also to go in the army for two years.

Many of us really wonder what we should do today in the face of global anti-Semitism?

There are those who still caution a “better to hush it up and make believe it isn’t there” policy. Giving it publicity, they claim, will only stoke the fire. A shrill response is counterproductive. When we show that we hurt, the argument goes, we’re giving our enemies comfort.
But they are wrong. They are as wrong as those in the early stages of the Holocaust who pretended not to see, who claimed Hitler can’t really be considered a threat, who were sure that the evil of Jew hatred was so obviously uncivilized and barbaric that it had no chance of succeeding. Wait it out, said those who counselled against protests, those who didn’t want to identify themselves as Jews with profound interest in saving their fellow Jews. It can’t happen here, they claimed. But it did – and they were proven wrong six million times over.

There are all too many Hamans today. Anti-Semites require the spotlight of our attention and the public scorn of our protests and demonstrations.

Today we see the growing  hostility toward or prejudice against Jews or Judaism as well as against Muslims, because of fundamentalist Muslims (Jihadists) defiling the Muslim faith and calling for a hate against Jews and non-believing people. It looks like we are also getting a revival of the rising nationalism like the one of the 19th century. Today we also see how the Roman Catholic Church, which in the 19th century sometimes subscribed to the idea of Jewish racial identity and sometimes denied it, like then not only fails to condemn European anti-Semitism and anti-Islamism, now the Muslim communities stayed too long silent condemning those Islamist fundamentalists who have nothing to do with real Islam. Balkans. Political/Physical map: regional, elevation.A problem by the Catholics is that in the East of Europe there are still some very right-wing priests and we must remember that in the Balkan several priests in the past had worked together with the Germans to get rid of the Jews. For Rabbi Giuseppe Laras this can well be the reason why the Catholic Church does not react stronger against the growing anti-semitism. He sees in it a continuation of a contempt towards the Jewish people that found genocidal expression during World War II, when Catholic Priests ran half the concentration camps in Fascist Croatia. Though we also should remember that this loathing also extended to Orthodox Christian Serbs, real or non-trinitarian Christians, like the Jehovah Witnesses, and also other minorities like the Roma who were slaughtered in these same camps by the hundreds of thousands.

By the threats of the jihadist groups like Al Qaeda, Daesh or ISIS, and the big amount of refugees coming into Europe lots of poorer Europeans see their jobs threatened and are fearing they would loose out on them.

Anti-Semitism in the 21st Century: The Resurgence

Anti-Semitism in the 21st Century: The Resurgence (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

We need not only to shout out our pain, we should motivate others to open their eyes and to see what is going on. We have to call onto those who say they are lovers of God.

We need to assert our Jewish identity – not mask it – with increased passion and vigor. We need to make the elimination of anti-Semitism not simply a Jewish cause but the universal response to a heinous crime which for far too long has soiled the pages of history.

As we prepare to observe Purim this year, let us make the noise required to eradicate the genocidal ambitions of anti-Jewish hatred which still continue to plague us.

The US delegation for the 2004 OSCE Conference...

The US delegation for the 2004 OSCE Conference on Anti-Semitism, led by former New York Mayor Ed Koch and former US Secretary of States Colin Powell. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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Preceding article

Seeds from the world creating division and separation from God

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Additional reading

  1. Religious Practices around the world
  2. Protest against Tzahal concert in Antwerp
  3. Migrants to the West #6
  4. 2014 European elections
  5. Hamas the modern Philistines
  6. January 27 – 70 years ago Not an end yet to genocide
  7. World remembers Auschwitz survivors
  8. 25 Orthodox rabbis issued a statement on Christianity
  9. French Muslims under attack
  10. At the closing hours of 2016 #1 Looking down at terror
  11. Jews the next scapegoat for Donald Trump
  12. The American clouds of Anti-Semitism
  13. Objective views and not closing eyes for certain sayings
  14. Donald Trump after declining numbers of people victimised for their religion managed to increase the numbers again

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Further reading

  1. Anti-Semitic threats towards Jewish Centers continue to rise in numbers
  2. anti-Semitism, the DNC, and Donald Trump
  3. Anti-Semitism row at Bristol University as lecturers rally round academic who claimed Jews should stop ‘privileging’ the Holocaust
  4. Jeffrey Goldberg on Mel Gibson: He is “Hollywood’s leading antisemite”
  5. This #Muslim interfaith activist knows more about #Zionism than most Jews
  6. France has passed the point of no return
  7. Far-right candidate sees a France sans kippas, headscarves — NZ Friends of Israel Association Inc
  8. Anti-Semites attack Philadelphia, USA Jewish cemetery
  9. Jewish cemetery in Philadelphia vandalized, more than 100 headstones toppled
  10. How has it come to this?
  11. Another day, another Muslim ban
  12. Meet ‘Based Stick Man,’ the Alt-Right’s LARP-y New Hero
  13. Mourning Oak Grove
  14. Israel: Boycotters are no longer welcome — Israel restricts visas — “If anyone insults us, we respond.”
  15. Israeli Apartheid Week in France — anti-Semitism and anti-Israel sentiment has been high in France while Jews flee to the Israeli homeland — Under French law boycotting is illegal
  16. President Trump Vows to Give Up Denouncing Anti-Semitism for Lent
  17. In Israel, Lauding and Lamenting the Era of Trump
  18. American Liberal Jews: “staggeringly naive believing that marching at airports with signs that read “We love Muslims” will change those Muslims who hate Jews into Muslims who love Jews”
  19. Steve Cohen’s ‘That’s Funny, You Don’t Look Anti-Semitic’
  20. Rochester Area JCC Re-Opens After Morning Bomb Threat
  21. A Sixth Wave Of Bomb Threats On Jewish Centers Also Targeted The Anti-Defamation League
  22. “The sad phenomenon of Jews accusing other Jews of provoking antisemitism can be found throughout Jewish history”
  23. Seattle Fed Says Kadima Purim Event Violates Promo Policy
  24. Donald Trump Is Not the “Least Anti-Semitic Person” Ever
  25. Switzerland funds NGOs that call for Israel’s destruction
  26. Glimmers of Hope
  27. Entire U.S. Senate Demands Trump Act on Jewish Center Threats
  28. The anti-Semitic Martin Luther
  29. So Many Hamans- Anti Semitism Rears Its Ugly Head
  30. Tomb of Purim Heroes Esther and Mordechai Still Standing in Modern-Day Persia -Breaking Israel News | Latest News. Biblical Perspective.
  31. Why Is Purim Essential?
  32. Headlines — 3/08/17
  33. “If you talk privately to those who work in the Jewish organization world, many will confide that the greatest threat to the security of the American Jewish community is “changing demographics,” which is a euphemism for a growing population of Arab migrants to the United States”
  34. A Liberal Zionism for the Trump Era
  35. Cindy Jacobs Wants To “Harvest” The Jews
  36. Also in Media: “The View from Israel: The Inevitable Outcome of the Establishment of Palestine.”  March 7, 2017
  37. Anti-Semitism (by If we the people)
  38. Ilan Pappe asks “Am I an anti-Semite?”
  39. Four steps to reach mutual understanding
  40. In An Angry And Fearful Nation, An Outbreak Of Anti-Semitism (by K Street)
  41. Remembering Amalek’s oppression of us-and others
  42. Goucher’s Jewish community reacts to anti-Semitic attacks
  43. The Rise of Anti-Seminism
  44. In an Angry and Fearful Nation, an Outbreak of Anti-Semitism (Reprint)
  45. The Story of Esther is Now
  46. United against Freedom…
  47. Activist: ‘Let’s free England from Jewish control’
  48. “A key teaching of the Book of Esther is that once the plague of Jew-hatred gets in the air, almost any environment can nourish it”
  49. Auschwitz
  50. Alternative Reality #5: Friends Indeed: Hoteps and Neo-Nazis Unite
  51. Islamophobia and its apologists
  52. Temple De Hirsch Hosts BDS Rabbi
  53. PewDiePie, Nazi?
  54. Show your love
  55. ADL plans Silicon Valley center to fight cyberhate
  56. A Sign That Reads ‘Beware of Jews’ Appeared in London
  57. Beware of Jews
  58. The Restless Ghosts of Baiersdorf
  59. Front National: Back to Holocaust Denial
  60. YouTube Grows a Spine
  61. Labour selects anti-Semite as New Plymouth candidate
  62. The enemy inside
  63. US ‘Outraged’ by UN Report That Accuses Israel of Establishing ‘Apartheid Regime’ That ‘Dominates the Palestinian People’
  64. The Guardian: Why won’t YouTube and Google consider moderators to tackle online hate?
  65. What Type of Utopia Will Israel Be?
  66. Italian rabbis accuse biblical conference of fueling anti-Judaism
  67. 167 House members ask Trump to retain ambassador to combat anti-Semitism
  68. US Muslim vets vow to protect Jewish communities
  69. Jews Support Muslims against Trump’s border closure
  70. Organizations call for Sebastian Gorka resignation for ties to far-right group
  71. On anti-Semitism, anti-Islam and fictitious alliances in U.S.
  72. Money Sought To Protect Jewish Schools
  73. Praying for an anti- anti-Semitic Awakening
  74. Alliel – A Window Into Tribal Arrogance
  75. Jewish mentality: Charging Palestinians millions of dollars to have their homes demolished
  76. Culture Clashes Real and Imagined
  77. The Old Man and the Tortoise
  78. The Goy According To Hoenlein
  79. Lost Tribes of Israel, Blood and History
  80. Sanctuary: An Interfaith Movement
  81. Vienna – 1938
  82. Come in, Come in
  83. Not That Jewish
  84. Why Call it Judaism? The Case for Humanistic Judaism
  85. Legitimacy: the Struggle of Progressive Judaism
  86. Is Pope Francis ushering in a revival of Catholic anti-Semitism as it seeks to ally itself with Islam? Prominent Italian Rabbi Giuseppe Laras sounds the alarm
  87. Sermon: Anti-Semitism: Do We Have a Problem?

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Cosmina Craciunescu looks on Positivism

Positivism and its developments in Europe

Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from sensory experience, logical and mathematical treatments, being the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge, stating that only in science there is a valid knowledge or truth.

Positivism is an older quarrel between philosophy and poetry later being described as a middle way between the humanities and the sciences. It was laid out by Plato , and it states that the only authentic knowledge is the one that allows for positive verification and assumes that valid knowledge exists only in science.

Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Among the most important Enlightenment thinkers, we can refer to Auguste Comte, who was a French philosopher and sociologist. He followed the creation of a positivist philosophy, and embraced the concept of the evolution of the modern society and of the people through time. The idea of progress was central to Comte’s new science, called sociology, which will eventually lead to the historical consideration of every science.

The positivist phase requires a complete understanding of the universe and the world around us and states that the society should never know if it is in this positivist phase.

As for scientific positivism, it was considered one of the most influential ideologies of progress in the early modern period and had a powerful impact in Europe during the course of 19th Century. It took form in France and had a great impact over other European movements.
The contemporary positivism actually meant the use of scientific methods to uncover the laws according to which both physical and human events occur, while sociology would tend to synthesize all knowledge in order to make a better society.
Positivism is a way of understanding based on science, (Auguste Comte) in which people do not rely on the faith in God, rather on the science behind humanity.

Moritz Schlick, the founding father of logical...

Moritz Schlick, the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Logical positivism, later called logical empiricism, is a school of philosophy that combines empiricism, the idea that the observational evidence is indispensable for the knowledge of the world, along with a version of rationalism, being the idea that our knowledge includes a component that is not derived from observation.
Logical positivism developed in a group of discussions called the First Vienna Circle that was organized after the end of the First World War. Some of the important names that tried to support this movement were Hans Reichenbach, Otto Neurath and Rudolph Carnap. The main idea that was supported by them was called synthetic a priori propositions – meaning that the rejection of metaphysics had no meaning, without actually being wrong. In the end, this project did not seem to last for too long.

Stephen Hawking is a recent high profile advocate of positivism, regarding the physical sciences. In his work, called The Universe in a Nutshell , –

English: NASA StarChild image of Stephen Hawking.

English: NASA StarChild image of Stephen Hawking. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

– “…a scientific theory is a mathematical model that describes and codifies the observations we make. A good theory should describe a large range of phenomena on the basis of a few simple postulates and will make definite predictions that can be tested…if one takes the positivist position, as I do, one cannot say what time actually is. All one can do is to describe what has been found to be a very good mathematical model for time and say what predictions it makes…”

Through the Vienna Circle, the positivist movement emerged in Europe in the late 1920s. The members of the Vienna Circle had a great antipathy toward the German speculative philosophy and toward sweeping metaphysical theories that had flourished on the continent all throughout the 20th Century.
An interesting aspect of the positivist movement was that the positivists regarded women as being superior to men. Comte praised women as being the vehicles of feelings over reason, of morality over politics .

 Positivism in the Frame of International Relations

In international relations, positivism has been the dominant epistemological point of view. In the theory of the International Relations, positivism tends to create knowledge that is being supported by four foundational assumptions.
The first one is that methodologies that apply in the scientific world can be assumed to perform the same in the non-scientific world. This is referred to as the unity of science .
The second assumption would constitute the fact that there is a clear delineation between values and facts , as well as the belief that facts remain neutral between various theories.
The third assumption is that both the natural and the social environments have regularities that can be uncovered by theories, being the same kind of process that is used when a scientist approaches the natural world, also being used in the context of the social research.
Positivism has a major role to play in international relations theory. It is considered to be one of the explicit alternatives among many, but rather as the implicit Gold Standard which stands against all values that were known before this particular time, along with all of the approaches that were evaluated in the past decades.
International theory underpins and informs international practice even if there is a lengthy lag between the major theories all the way to their absorption in the social, political and economic life.
In the context of international relations, positivism is regarded by scientists in different manners. Based on the works of John Locke and David Hume , the central premise of positivism is that science must be based on a Phenomenalist Nominalism expressing the notion that only statements about a particular phenomena which can be directly experiences can count as knowledge, and that any statements that do not refer to independent atomized objects cannot be granted the status of justified knowledge.

 – Cosmina Craciunescu

  Continue reading: Social Constructivism and Positivism in the Context of International Relations

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Related articles

  • Is Science Objective? – Logicial Positivism – Ashley, Jessica, Sophie (talonsphilosophy.wordpress.com)
    Logical Positivism is an outdated, radical idea that started in the Vienna Circle as far back as the early 1800s. The main view that logical positivists held is that no statement is legitimate or meaningful until it can be proven true or false. In the minds of logical positivists, personal opinions and values only warps science, and it can only be objective through the scientific method. During or class discussion, with the help of a spectrum of ideologies such as instrumentalism and postmodernism, the majority of the class came to the conclusion that science is not objective. This agreement was based on the idea that science is about the process of which we come to a conclusion, rather than the conclusion itself. Logical positivists would disagree with this analogy, as they believe that science is about coming to a proven legitimate conclusion rather than the process.
  • Logical Positivism (professorabapo.wordpress.com)
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  • “Methodological Mistakes and Econometric Consequences” (rwer.wordpress.com)
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  • The Legal Positivism Of The Elite: A Slippery Slope Toward Tyranny (forbes.com)
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  • On methodological issues (IV): Austrian Method vs Positivism (jaimemartinez87.wordpress.com)
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  • Quote for the Day – C.S. Peirce’s Refutation of Positivism (philosophyandpsychology.wordpress.com)
    Positivism “appears” false, a modesty born from his doctrine of fallibilism
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    Peirce’s point seems to be that Positivism fails to live up to its own standards because if we suppose the gold standard for knowledge is “direct observation”, how can we be sure that our observation was really and not seemingly direct? To verify that our observation was direct, we need a direct observation that our observation was direct. Thus, Positivism will either lead to an infinite regress or bottom out at a direct observation that we haven’t directly observed is a direct observation.
  • Positivism (aroojbhattiblog.wordpress.com)
    he chief results of empiriocriticism are theories that concern concepts and scientific laws very different from those of classical positivism. Forms of positivism that developed later, including logical positivism and neopositivism, which are directly related to critical positivism. Positivism and more usually logical positivism is also used to refer to the radical empiricism and scientism advanced at the beginning of the 20th century by the Vienna Circle. It is considered to be the main influence on sociological positivism, through the philosophy of theorists including Czech-American philosopher Ernest Nagel (1901-1985), philosopher of science Carl Gustav Hempel (1905-1997) and American sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld (1903-1976).

 

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