Tag Archives: Sciences

The Anthropologist in you

In this world we are part of creation and went looking for ways to look at creation and creatures.

A phylogenetic tree of living things.

A phylogenetic tree of living things. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

We as human beings went looking for ways to understand our fellow human beings and see how they evolved and what makes them to behave in certain ways. Certain of our species liked or like to study the aspects ranging from the biology and evolutionary history of Homo sapiens to the features of society and culture that decisively distinguish humans from other animal species. Because of the diverse subject matter it encompasses, such study, being called anthropology,  in consonance with the etymology of its name, “study of man,” is the most comprehensive of the academic disciplines dealing with mankind.

In a sense every man can be an anthropologist, if a very humanistic and generous interpretation is accepted.

This is to say that every human being is related to others and has a unique way of life. However, a more generally accepted interpretation in academia is that an anthropologist is one who has attained a Ph.D. in anthropology, teaches anthropology or carries out anthropological field research, and has published literature in a field of anthropology in a peer-reviewed journal, or is widely accepted by other anthropologists as an anthropologist. {Wikipedia}

Diverse areas as language, social structure, aesthetic expression, and belief systems, can be tackled. For that reason it is interesting for us to have such an interested soul, willing to share ideas about the sciences of man which treats man both in his physical and sociocultural aspects. In addition to these fundamental biological and social scientific components, anthropology has a significant humanistic aspect, as shown, for example, in its empathetic search for the bases of aesthetic valuation in the arts of alien people.

Those who are able to study man, according to our opinion, should not keep all that knowledge to themselves. We hope we can find some one who is willing to share his or her knowledge with us and our readers. For the very richness and variety of interests of such field, lead inevitably to bringing people closer together and to understanding different cultures and religions. Such an understanding can only bring more wisdom and acceptance of such other ideas, cultures and religions and taking away the tension which may exist between the different thoughts.

We would love to find a person who is willing to become a contributor to this platform where we want to show the beauty of creation, i.e. the beauty of nature and of species, being the plants, animals and human species with their different cultures which are sprinkled with creativity and richness that can enrich us all.

1: 1=Homo sapiens 2=Neanderthals 3=Early Homin...

1: 1=Homo sapiens 2=Neanderthals 3=Early Hominids Français : 1: 1=Homo sapiens 2=Néandertaliens 3=Premiers hominidés (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

We not only can do with an anthropologist, also a historian would be very welcome. Only be getting to know other people, also knowing what happened in the past, what went wrong or how things could be solved can we learn how to tackle the matters in the right way, in our present times. In order to recover the basic facts concerning past societies in regions and for periods in which the written records that constitute the basic materials of conventional historians are lacking, the skills of archaeology combined with other inferential methods, such as the use of oral traditions, ethnological trait distributions, and comparative linguistics, we can come to more insight. And such better insight shall help us to help others to come to terms with what happens around us or to find ways to help solve many problems we are confronted with.

When more people can have more interest in human ethnic diversity, biology and evolution of humanity we can more easily grow to a more peaceful society.

Can you not be that person who wants to help others grow in knowledge and in better understanding of other people?

Please do have the guts to help others to see more and to bring more insight in how humankind is a diversity which is so rich we all can profit.

Present yourself as a contributor and do not hesitate to become an author on this platform.

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Preceding articles about “Sharing Writings and linking“:

A charter for a truly free world and why we need it

Showing the beauties of nature

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First man’s task still counting today

Today many people do forget their role to play in our society and which position of responsibility they have to take in this universe of living creatures. Too many years human beings have found themselves superior to all other beings and did not have much interest for their well being, neither for the safeguarding of the environment.

Today we are faced with the consequences of human beings their selfish attitude and have to find a solution for the global warming of which we are a victim because of our “own stupidity”.

oil on wood panel

oil on wood panel (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

We may not forget that when this universe was created the Maker of it had a purpose for the created elements. At that time of the beginning the first man and mannin (Adam and Eve) received a task. Though they went into rebellion against their Maker and were expelled from the Garden of Eden, their given task still counts for us. Our job and our identity as human beings is still to make sense of the world around us.

It is interesting to realize that in so many ways we are still striving to create a language to make order of the chaos of our experience of the world. {Naming the Naming Project: A Deep Look at Adam and the Human Project}

For centuries man has been looking for his purpose and for more insight in all the things around him. Several ideas were uttered and many sciences found their light.

It seems Adam’s job is hard-wired into who we are as human beings. We just need to name it that in a very deep way Adam is who we are striving to become. {Naming the Naming Project: A Deep Look at Adam and the Human Project}

writes Rabbi Avi Katz Orlow who wants to make the world a better place.

In arts and science man has always looked at man’s surroundings and the existence of things.

Children have the delight of discovery. As adults, we acquire a more organized way of learning and studying, but also lose the feel of the freshness of things. Because of that, most adults are – almost by definition – slightly dull. Creative ability is only found in those who retain a part of their childhood. The artist and the scientist both have this freshness of view. An apple falls from a tree: the child asks – why does it fall and not fly? –and such questions are the beginning of science. {What is the Purpose of Childhood}

Growing older lots of people do loose the innocence of the child and also loose the interest to ‘look beyond’. those who call themselves Christian should remember the one who they say they are following, rabbi Jeshua, and should also to take on that innocence that man had as an unselfish attitude. He went even so far that he gave up his only life for the betterment of all people. All people can learn a lot from him, who did not want to do his own will but always did the Will of his heavenly Father, the Only One true God, Hashem Jehovah.

Most of us should get red cheeks and be ashamed that they often do not manage to take on such an attitude as their master teacher. But every day we should work on it and go for it. Not one moment should be lost by not trying. As long as we do our best, it is not bad.

Lots of people do place themselves in the centre of the universe. Part of growing up and becoming older is that we should become wiser and be able to set ourselves more at the site and be forgiving for bad things that happened in the past. We can always look back at one of the best examples in the Holy Scriptures, though having had to face several bad years he opened his heart for his brothers and welcomed them again.

Yosef has matured. Looking into the pit Yosef sees how far he has come in his life. He no longer sees himself at the center of the universe. Yosef responds:Have no fear! Am I a substitute for God? Besides, although you intended me harm, God intended it for good, so as to bring about the present result–the survival of many people. (50:19-20) {What, Too Soon?}

Every day in our life we have to learn and to grow further. Some may think that learning is difficult or that

Learning should be hard, but not to hard and definitely not out of reach. {Getting Past the “How” of Torah: For the Love of Learning}

Being made in the image of God, we all inherited from the Source of Life, the inability to think and to use our brains and limbs to act and to create in the right way. There are people living in regions were it is also very easy to get a good education. Others live in regions where not such ideal conditions exist and where not many are helping others to get the right and good education.

In a certain way god provided enough material to get the right ideas and to make the best out of life. It is all there for everybody everywhere in the world. But many do not see it or want to be blind for it.

We can read about the reception of the Torah.

For this commandment which I command you this day, it is not too hard for you, neither is it far off. It is not in heaven, that you should say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’ Neither is it beyond the sea, that you should say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it to us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’ (Deuteronomy 30:11–13)

For rabbi Avi Katz Orlow learning should not to hard and definitely not out of reach.

Here we see learning Torah depicted as some elaborate scavenger hunt. What zeal would we bring to trying to learn Torah if it was in fact hidden in the heaven or on the other side of the ocean? {Getting Past the “How” of Torah: For the Love of Learning}In our community there are many efforts to make Torah more accessible, but still people feel alienated. What are we missing? Perhaps we have made Torah too accessible? We have lost our zeal. Would we try harder if it was in heaven or across the sea? But I do not think that is all of it.We fail because we have not done a good job expressing the “why”? Yes I am Hassid of Simon Sinek.  And if you have not seen this TED talk please stop everything and watch it now. {Getting Past the “How” of Torah: For the Love of Learning}

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Simon Sinek discusses the principal behind every successful person and business. A simple but powerful model for how leaders inspire action, starting with a golden circle and the question “Why?”

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Why is learning valuable? I have my thoughts on this, but for now I just want to put the question out there. In Sinek’s words,

People don’t buy what you do; they buy why you do it. And if you talk about what you believe, you will attract those who believe what you believe.

As we prepare for the High Holidays it is interesting to think about your own “why”. And once we figure out our “why” it will not matter if learning Torah is in heaven or across the sea, that is just a “how”. {Getting Past the “How” of Torah: For the Love of Learning}

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Preceding article: A little ray of sunshine.

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Additional reading:

  1. Necessary to be known all over the earth
  2. Christian values, traditions, real or false stories, pure and upright belief
  3. Being Religious and Spiritual 4 Philosophical, religious and spiritual people
  4. An unbridgeable gap
  5. Without God no purpose, no goal, no hope
  6. Atonement And Fellowship 7/8
  7. Shared inheritance plus integral and integrating vision
  8. Not many coming out with their community name
  9. To find ways of Godly understanding
  10. We are ourselves responsible
  11. A Living Faith #10: Our manner of Life #2
  12. What part of the Body am I?
  13. If we, in our prosperity, neglect religious instruction and authority
  14. With the gift of Jesus comes an awesome responsibility
  15. Training for the kingdom
  16. From pain to purpose
  17. My 2 Words
  18. Teach children the Bible
  19. Beautiful feet of those who announce the good news
  20. The Greatest of These is Love

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Cosmina Craciunescu looks on Positivism

Positivism and its developments in Europe

Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from sensory experience, logical and mathematical treatments, being the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge, stating that only in science there is a valid knowledge or truth.

Positivism is an older quarrel between philosophy and poetry later being described as a middle way between the humanities and the sciences. It was laid out by Plato , and it states that the only authentic knowledge is the one that allows for positive verification and assumes that valid knowledge exists only in science.

Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Among the most important Enlightenment thinkers, we can refer to Auguste Comte, who was a French philosopher and sociologist. He followed the creation of a positivist philosophy, and embraced the concept of the evolution of the modern society and of the people through time. The idea of progress was central to Comte’s new science, called sociology, which will eventually lead to the historical consideration of every science.

The positivist phase requires a complete understanding of the universe and the world around us and states that the society should never know if it is in this positivist phase.

As for scientific positivism, it was considered one of the most influential ideologies of progress in the early modern period and had a powerful impact in Europe during the course of 19th Century. It took form in France and had a great impact over other European movements.
The contemporary positivism actually meant the use of scientific methods to uncover the laws according to which both physical and human events occur, while sociology would tend to synthesize all knowledge in order to make a better society.
Positivism is a way of understanding based on science, (Auguste Comte) in which people do not rely on the faith in God, rather on the science behind humanity.

Moritz Schlick, the founding father of logical...

Moritz Schlick, the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Logical positivism, later called logical empiricism, is a school of philosophy that combines empiricism, the idea that the observational evidence is indispensable for the knowledge of the world, along with a version of rationalism, being the idea that our knowledge includes a component that is not derived from observation.
Logical positivism developed in a group of discussions called the First Vienna Circle that was organized after the end of the First World War. Some of the important names that tried to support this movement were Hans Reichenbach, Otto Neurath and Rudolph Carnap. The main idea that was supported by them was called synthetic a priori propositions – meaning that the rejection of metaphysics had no meaning, without actually being wrong. In the end, this project did not seem to last for too long.

Stephen Hawking is a recent high profile advocate of positivism, regarding the physical sciences. In his work, called The Universe in a Nutshell , –

English: NASA StarChild image of Stephen Hawking.

English: NASA StarChild image of Stephen Hawking. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

– “…a scientific theory is a mathematical model that describes and codifies the observations we make. A good theory should describe a large range of phenomena on the basis of a few simple postulates and will make definite predictions that can be tested…if one takes the positivist position, as I do, one cannot say what time actually is. All one can do is to describe what has been found to be a very good mathematical model for time and say what predictions it makes…”

Through the Vienna Circle, the positivist movement emerged in Europe in the late 1920s. The members of the Vienna Circle had a great antipathy toward the German speculative philosophy and toward sweeping metaphysical theories that had flourished on the continent all throughout the 20th Century.
An interesting aspect of the positivist movement was that the positivists regarded women as being superior to men. Comte praised women as being the vehicles of feelings over reason, of morality over politics .

 Positivism in the Frame of International Relations

In international relations, positivism has been the dominant epistemological point of view. In the theory of the International Relations, positivism tends to create knowledge that is being supported by four foundational assumptions.
The first one is that methodologies that apply in the scientific world can be assumed to perform the same in the non-scientific world. This is referred to as the unity of science .
The second assumption would constitute the fact that there is a clear delineation between values and facts , as well as the belief that facts remain neutral between various theories.
The third assumption is that both the natural and the social environments have regularities that can be uncovered by theories, being the same kind of process that is used when a scientist approaches the natural world, also being used in the context of the social research.
Positivism has a major role to play in international relations theory. It is considered to be one of the explicit alternatives among many, but rather as the implicit Gold Standard which stands against all values that were known before this particular time, along with all of the approaches that were evaluated in the past decades.
International theory underpins and informs international practice even if there is a lengthy lag between the major theories all the way to their absorption in the social, political and economic life.
In the context of international relations, positivism is regarded by scientists in different manners. Based on the works of John Locke and David Hume , the central premise of positivism is that science must be based on a Phenomenalist Nominalism expressing the notion that only statements about a particular phenomena which can be directly experiences can count as knowledge, and that any statements that do not refer to independent atomized objects cannot be granted the status of justified knowledge.

 – Cosmina Craciunescu

  Continue reading: Social Constructivism and Positivism in the Context of International Relations

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    Logical Positivism is an outdated, radical idea that started in the Vienna Circle as far back as the early 1800s. The main view that logical positivists held is that no statement is legitimate or meaningful until it can be proven true or false. In the minds of logical positivists, personal opinions and values only warps science, and it can only be objective through the scientific method. During or class discussion, with the help of a spectrum of ideologies such as instrumentalism and postmodernism, the majority of the class came to the conclusion that science is not objective. This agreement was based on the idea that science is about the process of which we come to a conclusion, rather than the conclusion itself. Logical positivists would disagree with this analogy, as they believe that science is about coming to a proven legitimate conclusion rather than the process.
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  • The Legal Positivism Of The Elite: A Slippery Slope Toward Tyranny (forbes.com)
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  • Quote for the Day – C.S. Peirce’s Refutation of Positivism (philosophyandpsychology.wordpress.com)
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    Peirce’s point seems to be that Positivism fails to live up to its own standards because if we suppose the gold standard for knowledge is “direct observation”, how can we be sure that our observation was really and not seemingly direct? To verify that our observation was direct, we need a direct observation that our observation was direct. Thus, Positivism will either lead to an infinite regress or bottom out at a direct observation that we haven’t directly observed is a direct observation.
  • Positivism (aroojbhattiblog.wordpress.com)
    he chief results of empiriocriticism are theories that concern concepts and scientific laws very different from those of classical positivism. Forms of positivism that developed later, including logical positivism and neopositivism, which are directly related to critical positivism. Positivism and more usually logical positivism is also used to refer to the radical empiricism and scientism advanced at the beginning of the 20th century by the Vienna Circle. It is considered to be the main influence on sociological positivism, through the philosophy of theorists including Czech-American philosopher Ernest Nagel (1901-1985), philosopher of science Carl Gustav Hempel (1905-1997) and American sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld (1903-1976).

 

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