Tag Archives: Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking who did not believe in a Creator God got a Church funeral

How can it be that the one who protested so much against faith in God would have loved to be receiving a funeral service in a church. The one everybody considered an atheist, brilliant and groundbreaking British theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who died on Wednesday, March 14 at age 76, got a ‘Christian funeral’.

Shortly following the news of Mr. Hawking’s passing, Texas state representative Briscoe Cain tweeted the following:

“Stephen Hawking now knows the truth about how the universe was actually made. My condolences to his family.”

Was it now his family who tried to save ‘his soul’ and therefore wanted a church service?

The galaxy’s most unlikely celebrity, a brilliant mind trapped in a failing body, a global inspiration to disabled people, and so much more, found like every human being that life has an end. For him it came later than expected. He had a a relentless drive and unquenchable zest for life that has allowed him to achieve so much despite his huge physical challenges. As his daughter Lucy would often say, he was “enormously stubborn”.

Diagnosed with motor neurone disease in 1963 at the age of 21, he was told he’d have only two more years to live. Yet his mind managed to travel light years in the wake of that devastating diagnosis, to help turn cosmology from a fringe subject into perhaps the most compelling of all the sciences, in which he provided profound insights into gravity, space and time few have delivered since Einstein.

Stephen HawkingThrough mutual college friends at a party the year before his devastating diagnosis he met Jane Wilde, a languages student, who he married in 1965. In 1974, aged only 32, he was elected to the Royal Society, the world’s oldest scientific academy. A few days after the birth of his daughter Lucy, in 1970, he had a “Eureka moment” leading up to his realisation that black holes are not so black. He discovered they would bleed off what is now called “Hawking radiation” and gradually evaporate, “to my great surprise”.
By the end of the 1970s, Hawkings had advanced to hold the Lucasian professorship of mathematics at Cambridge, once held by Newton.

In 2012 he reached perhaps his largest audience – at the opening ceremony of the London Paralympics. The following year he became $3m richer as one of the first winners of the Breakthrough prize to recognise theoretical work, in his case the discovery of Hawking Radiation from black holes – which would have earned him a Nobel prize if experimentally confirmed in his lifetime – and his deep contributions to quantum gravity and quantum aspects of the early universe.

The one who was supposed not to live longer than his 20ies got 76. though he was known as an atheist, he got a funeral service in Cambridge. Shortly after 2pm Hawking’s coffin was carried aloft into the church of St Mary the Great, a stone’s throw from Gonville and Caius college where he had been a fellow for more than half a century.

As befits a man who seemed as comfortable with celebrity as he was with the cerebral, Hawking’s funeral drew a starry crowd. The actors Eddie Redmayne – who played Hawking in The Theory of Everything, a film about his life – and Simon Russell Beale, a former student of Gonville and Caius, were in attendance. So, too, were the model Lily Cole and Queen guitarist Brian May.

Can it be that so many understood him wrong by believing he did not believe in God? When he was an atheist, were his children and his wife that too? But then why this charade in a church?

A ‘Seeker‘ probably thinks Hawkings was a believer in God and writes

Hawkings argued that God did not create the Universe.

It does not really matter. In my mind, heaven cannot wait for him. Seventy-Six is a long time that God gave him and there is plenty of room for him in heaven, I can imagine that he will have a grand time conversing with Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, both had faith and believer (sic) in God.

Crowds lined the streets

Crowds gathered as the funeral procession passed through the streets of Cambridge. Photograph: Joe Giddens/PA

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Please read:

Locals share their memories at Stephen Hawking’s funeral

The Shameful Mocking of Stephen Hawking

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Further related

  1. Stephen Hawking has died at age 76.
  2. The theory of Hawking comes to an end.
  3. Stephen Hawking, Rest in Peace
  4. I’m not a robot !
  5. Stephen Hawking’s final paper predicts the end of the world
  6. A star moves from one world to another!!
  7. The Man With a ‘Worm’ Heart.
  8. [Changmin IG] 180314 Changmin’s Post on the Passing of Theoretical Physicist Stephen Hawkings
  9. The concept of time
  10. Thank You Stephen Hawkings
  11. to you, who had a theory for everything
  12. I first met Stephen Hawking when we were students. His parties were legendary and he always insisted he wasn’t another Einstein
  13. Heaven can’t wait for Hawkings
  14. Stephen Hawking Quotes – A tribute to the man who has now disappeared into his own black hole.

 

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Filed under Headlines - News, Science

One of the most brilliant theoretical physicists since Einstein died

PictureStephen William Hawking (1942 – 2018) was the former Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge and author of A Brief History of Time which is an international bestseller. He was the Dennis Stanton Avery and Sally Tsui Wong-Avery Director of Research at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics and Founder of the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at Cambridge, his other books for the general reader include A Briefer History of Time, the essay collection Black Holes and Baby Universe and The Universe in a Nutshell.

In 1963, Hawking contracted motor neurone disease and was given two years to live. Yet he went on to Cambridge to become a brilliant researcher and Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. From 1979 to 2009 he held the post of Lucasian Professor at Cambridge, the chair held by Isaac Newton in 1663. Professor Hawking received over a dozen honorary degrees and was awarded the CBE in 1982. He was a fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the US National Academy of Science. Stephen Hawking is regarded as one of the most brilliant theoretical physicists since Einstein.

Please read > A brief history of Stephen Hawking: A legacy of paradox

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Filed under Headlines - News, Re-Blogs and Great Blogs, Science, World affairs

Though disabled in the eyes of society able to do great things

How common are specific disabilitiesHow many people do not take it for granted that we can make our bodies move about the world as we command them to. But lots of people have no such blessing. There are even people who remain conscious but are unable to move, communicate, or even breathe on their own. For them their body may be like a prison in which they are closed up and have no prospect to become liberated. Can you imagine how it must feel , knowing you never get out of that prison, which limits you to one particular place where no easy communication is possible?

People can be periodically blocked or not able to move any more. Others can have periodic paralyses as a genetic disorder characterized by episodes of sudden muscular paralysis. Again others may have got the bad news they shall become more and more limited in what they can do to end up to be fully limited in their actions and having to face death, totally paralysed. For them it is not just for minutes or hours that muscles become flaccid and useless. For several people there are no such episodes which are reversible with treatment of abnormal potassium levels, and in most cases aren’t fatal.

What would you do if you come to know your body is deteriorating?

English: 1934 Goudey baseball card of Lou Gehr...

English: 1934 Goudey baseball card of Lou Gehrig of the New York Yankees #61. PD-not-renewed. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

What if you are a lover of movement, a dancer or a baseball player like Ludwig Heinrich Gehrig, better known under Lou Gehrig and his byname the Iron Horse or Iron Man (born June 19, 1903, New York, New York, U.S.—died June 2, 1941, New York City). He was one of the most durable players in American professional baseball and one of its great hitters, but had to hear terrible news after a year of speedy decline, falling several times, not having strong wings any more, in 1939, getting diagnosed with a rare nervous system disorder, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); this disease has come to be known as Lou Gehrig’s disease.

A sportswriter observed that Gehrig looked “like a man trying to lift heavy trunks into a truck.”

When the Yankees arrived in Detroit for a May 2 game, Gehrig was hitting .143. He took himself out of the lineup, telling McCarthy it was “for the good of the team.” Gehrig took the lineup card to home plate with Babe Dahlgren‘s name at first base. The Detroit fans applauded for two minutes. Gehrig tipped his cap and disappeared into the dugout and the record books. He would never play another game. His streak of 2,130 games was a record that would stand for 56 years. He finished with 493 home runs, 535 doubles, 162 triples, a .340 batting average and 1,990 RBIs, third-highest among all major leaguers. {Encyclopedia of World Biography | 2004: Lou Gehrig}

On May 2, he took himself out of the Yankees’ lineup, and he never played baseball again. He left baseball with a career batting average of .340, with 493 home runs and 1,990 runs batted in, all during regular season play. In seven World Series (34 games), he batted .361, hit 10 home runs, and drove in 35 runs. {Encyclopedia  Britannica – biography:Lou-Gehrig} He was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1939.

What if you start feeling those early symptoms which may only involve mild weakness, slurred speech, or twitching?

However those patients who are slowly locked inside their bodies, losing their ability to control any movement should not loose hope for what they can achieve. Even when in the inevitable conclusion, the unlucky victims getting unable to even speak or swallow there are ways out to be able to communicate. Though they might come completely dependent upon others for total care, some of the victims have proven to be stronger than their disease and mad sure they could mean something special in our society.

When sensation and the mind are left intact, leaving the patient helplessly aware of their imprisonment it is a matter of daring to not allow the adversary pull you down. Do not allow yourself being pulled down neither by those around you, who may loose patience with ‘a case like you’, but use that still active brain to show the world you are able to think properly.

English: Professor Stephen Hawking in Cambridg...

Professor Stephen Hawking in Cambridge, UK. Español: El profesor Stephen Hawking en Cambridge, Reino Unido. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Renowned physicist Stephen Hawking, who has surpassed typical survival expectations by decades, is one of the most beautiful examples how a person can be stronger than his captor or retainer. At his last visit in Belgium, last Autumn, he gave a marvellous interview on the Flemish television, where he was followed for his whole stay in that small country where they look up at that grate man.

After having been an outstanding student at St. Alban’s School he received a first-class honors degree in physics at University College, Oxford (B.A., 1962), Hawking set off for Cambridge University to begin studying at Trinity Hall, (Ph.D., 1966) and looking at the themes of cosmology which would preoccupy him throughout his life.

Stephen William Hawking was elected a research fellow at Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge. Though it was already in the early 1960s that Hawking contracted amyotrophic lateral sclerosis but that did not stop him to continue with what he liked best. He continued to work despite the disease’s progressively disabling effects and became considered the most insightful theoretical physicist since Albert Einstein. with good reason he gained a worldwide following, not only among other scientists, but also among a great many laypeople and as an author and lecturer, he has achieved celebrity status.

Black & White photo of Hawking at NASA.

Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA , English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. – Here seen at NASA in the 1980s.

For religious people his explanation of the Big Bang theory may be very revealing. Hawking is not afraid to question such idea if there had been a beginning to space-time (a big bang), or whether one state of affairs (one universe, to put it loosely) simply gave birth to another without beginning or end. He also dare to tell that there is so much we do not know yet and that we may not underestimate the force of nature, that new universes might be born frequently through little-understood anomalies in space-time. He also investigated string theory and exploding black holes, and showed mathematically that numerous miniature black holes may have formed early in the history of our universe. When humans develop the unified field theory, said Hawking, they will “know the mind of God.”

His goal to come to a complete understanding of the universe,

“why it is as it is and why it exists at all.”

is something he nor we shall be able to reach, but for sure he has proven that we do not allow a disease to imprison or chain us and to have it to make us useless. He is the living proof, that though disabled, a human being can be able to do much.

 

Be it ALS, MS, AS, Transverse myelitis, High-Level Quadriplegia, Akinetic Mutism, Fibromyalgia, Locked-In Syndrome or any other nightmare diseases, let it not destroy your mind, your way of thinking your way of being yourself a “I Am” wroth being.

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Please do find also a list of some famous and well known people with various disabilities and conditions: Famous People with Disability

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Disability Videos
Selection of video clips providing information for and about persons with disabilities in video format.

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Preceding articles:

What would you do if…?

What would you do if…? Continued trial

See the conquest and believe that we can gain the victory

The Goal

Cosmina Craciunescu looks on Positivism

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Further reading:

  1. Civil Rights Worldwide – Disability
  2. Silence as Acquiescence: On the Need to Address Disability Stereotyping in Kocherov and Sergeyeva v. Russia
  3. What does body identity mean today?
  4. Life in chronic pain
  5. Access for All: Agenda for Americans with Disabilities – 3 New Bills
  6. Disability: Benefits, Facts & Resources for Persons with Disabilities
  7. It’s All Relative
  8. We can do Anything, but hear!
  9. “The Danger of Silence” by Clint Smith
  10. I will not be defined
  11. Schrodinger’s Chiari
  12. Your daughter has ABS…
  13. My Fibromyalgia Awareness Day
  14. Fibromyalgia & ME/CFS Awareness Day
  15. The Burden of ME/CFS (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome)
  16. Ableism & Hate Crime – Disability
  17. Suffering with M.E..
  18. Bhil family struggles with three disabled members
  19. DWP: Disabled Woman, Persecuted.
  20. The Daily Fix: The Jeeja Ghosh judgement is an important moment in the fight for disability rights
  21. Entertainment – Disability
  22. When Snapchat Filters Mock Your Medical Condition
  23. It’s wicked to mock the afflicted – Kenneth Howerd…
  24. Leader of the PACK
  25. To J.K. Rowling from Us
  26. The Book That Changed My Life The Most
  27. Assistive Technology – Disability
  28. Update and NoobGrind GTX 1080 article
  29. The Scars From Which I Have Grown
  30. Disability in the Church
  31. Pastor Lingerfelt, Do We Look “Retarded” To You?
  32. Want to Be an Awesome Ally for People with Disabilities?
  33. Over-Explaining
  34. Sunshine or Rain
  35. When Strength Isn’t Enough
  36. A Circus Stole Some of My Monkeys!
  37. Intrview: My Story – Living with Aspergers Syndrome
  38. “I just wanted to die” – living with leprosy in Myanmar.
  39. What is on your bucket list?
  40. She might have lost both her arms and legs but that’s not stopping Shalini from participating in a marathon contest!
  41. Lessons I have learned
  42. The cost of living (with a disability)
  43. Bringing Disability Accessibility to Colchester: How YOU Can Help
  44. Euphemistic Terminology
  45. Time Passes…Life Goes On…Even Under Seeming Odds
  46. Bad to worse to… hopeful?
  47. Not much to say
  48. Life is Short, True Love is Rare….

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Filed under Being and Feeling, Health affairs, History, Positive thoughts, Uncategorized, Welfare matters

The Goal

elders used to ask “what do you wanna become when you grow up?”

we just want to be successful.

Many of us dream to be successful. Most of us think glory and being very well known will bring luck or prosperity. But they might be mistaken by that.

Those listed few people who are/were extremely successful in their life had many battles to win and not always had it very easy to reach the top or have the fame they may receive now. It is also impossible for us to know if they are really happy with their life and feel blessed and are feeling lucky.

Can we be sure they reached the dream or got what they hoped for? Perhaps they had other aspirations and many of them for sure still have much wider dreams and want to do so much more. For many of them their goal is not at all reached, though we may think they got at their end point or that they reached the unreachable.

Luck and successfulness should be investigated and questioned and not always go together. Many seemingly very successfully people where very unhappy and still found themselves not successful.

Brad Pitt in 2007.

Brad Pitt in 2007. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Do you think Bill Gates, Vladimir Putin, Shrikant Jichkar, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lionel Messi, Stephen HawkingCharles Babbage, Brad Pitt consider themselves successful and happy?

others who judged whether they are successful or not.

English: arnold schwarzenegger Deutsch: arnold...

Arnold Schwarzenegger (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

What is it we want to strive for and how do we want to built up our successfulness. When do we consider ourselves successful? what is being successful?
Is having fame the same as being successful? Do know that television and showbiz people may at one moment being renown, but very soon their fame begins to tarnish when their name is not any more on the role. Many spectators look up at those people who they call famous or ‘world renowned’ though they even are not yet known by many in their own region. It is all relative. Celebrities may be in the picture a lot, but that does not secure their success nor their happiness. The local heroes or today’s celebrities or the forgotten ones of tomorrow.

Those working hard in the shade, all those unknown by many may be trying to make something of their life, and perhaps many of them are more successful in reaching their goal. Best is that they all try to be happy with what they have and can get and not loose their faith in their dreams.

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Preceding articles:

Attitude of Unstopable Success

Gender connections

Getting fate in your change to positiveness

Helping to create a Positive Attitude

Material wealth, Submission and Heaven on earth

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Find also to read:

  1. Happy International Happiness Day!
  2. Built on or Belonging to Jewish tradition #4 Mozaic and Noachide laws
  3. Engaging the culture without losing the gospel
  4. Looking for True Spirituality 2 Not restricted to an elite
  5. Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement
  6. The road to success is dotted with many tempting parking places

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Pattern$ oF R@nD0mNEsS

Disclaimer – Proceed only if you do not believe in “Everything is lust and mirage (Sab moh maya hai)”.

We all know how we are born (I know, they forgot to wear the protection), but for a moment let’s think about the “why” part – the meaning of life.

I don’t know if you remember it or not, when you were a kid, elders used to ask “what do you wanna become when you grow up?” and we used to say – Doctor, engineer, lawyer, bus conductor, blah blah. And the answer to the question changed with time. But one thing always remained constant – whatever it is, we just want to be successful. So the interim conclusion is “The goal of life is to be successful”. Success is something that everybody wants in life, but what is success? What are the parameters to measure success?

I have listed few…

View original post 454 more words

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Filed under Being and Feeling, Economical affairs, Re-Blogs and Great Blogs, Reflection Texts, Social affairs, Welfare matters

Cosmina Craciunescu looks on Positivism

Positivism and its developments in Europe

Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from sensory experience, logical and mathematical treatments, being the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge, stating that only in science there is a valid knowledge or truth.

Positivism is an older quarrel between philosophy and poetry later being described as a middle way between the humanities and the sciences. It was laid out by Plato , and it states that the only authentic knowledge is the one that allows for positive verification and assumes that valid knowledge exists only in science.

Auguste Comte

Auguste Comte (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Among the most important Enlightenment thinkers, we can refer to Auguste Comte, who was a French philosopher and sociologist. He followed the creation of a positivist philosophy, and embraced the concept of the evolution of the modern society and of the people through time. The idea of progress was central to Comte’s new science, called sociology, which will eventually lead to the historical consideration of every science.

The positivist phase requires a complete understanding of the universe and the world around us and states that the society should never know if it is in this positivist phase.

As for scientific positivism, it was considered one of the most influential ideologies of progress in the early modern period and had a powerful impact in Europe during the course of 19th Century. It took form in France and had a great impact over other European movements.
The contemporary positivism actually meant the use of scientific methods to uncover the laws according to which both physical and human events occur, while sociology would tend to synthesize all knowledge in order to make a better society.
Positivism is a way of understanding based on science, (Auguste Comte) in which people do not rely on the faith in God, rather on the science behind humanity.

Moritz Schlick, the founding father of logical...

Moritz Schlick, the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Logical positivism, later called logical empiricism, is a school of philosophy that combines empiricism, the idea that the observational evidence is indispensable for the knowledge of the world, along with a version of rationalism, being the idea that our knowledge includes a component that is not derived from observation.
Logical positivism developed in a group of discussions called the First Vienna Circle that was organized after the end of the First World War. Some of the important names that tried to support this movement were Hans Reichenbach, Otto Neurath and Rudolph Carnap. The main idea that was supported by them was called synthetic a priori propositions – meaning that the rejection of metaphysics had no meaning, without actually being wrong. In the end, this project did not seem to last for too long.

Stephen Hawking is a recent high profile advocate of positivism, regarding the physical sciences. In his work, called The Universe in a Nutshell , –

English: NASA StarChild image of Stephen Hawking.

English: NASA StarChild image of Stephen Hawking. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

– “…a scientific theory is a mathematical model that describes and codifies the observations we make. A good theory should describe a large range of phenomena on the basis of a few simple postulates and will make definite predictions that can be tested…if one takes the positivist position, as I do, one cannot say what time actually is. All one can do is to describe what has been found to be a very good mathematical model for time and say what predictions it makes…”

Through the Vienna Circle, the positivist movement emerged in Europe in the late 1920s. The members of the Vienna Circle had a great antipathy toward the German speculative philosophy and toward sweeping metaphysical theories that had flourished on the continent all throughout the 20th Century.
An interesting aspect of the positivist movement was that the positivists regarded women as being superior to men. Comte praised women as being the vehicles of feelings over reason, of morality over politics .

 Positivism in the Frame of International Relations

In international relations, positivism has been the dominant epistemological point of view. In the theory of the International Relations, positivism tends to create knowledge that is being supported by four foundational assumptions.
The first one is that methodologies that apply in the scientific world can be assumed to perform the same in the non-scientific world. This is referred to as the unity of science .
The second assumption would constitute the fact that there is a clear delineation between values and facts , as well as the belief that facts remain neutral between various theories.
The third assumption is that both the natural and the social environments have regularities that can be uncovered by theories, being the same kind of process that is used when a scientist approaches the natural world, also being used in the context of the social research.
Positivism has a major role to play in international relations theory. It is considered to be one of the explicit alternatives among many, but rather as the implicit Gold Standard which stands against all values that were known before this particular time, along with all of the approaches that were evaluated in the past decades.
International theory underpins and informs international practice even if there is a lengthy lag between the major theories all the way to their absorption in the social, political and economic life.
In the context of international relations, positivism is regarded by scientists in different manners. Based on the works of John Locke and David Hume , the central premise of positivism is that science must be based on a Phenomenalist Nominalism expressing the notion that only statements about a particular phenomena which can be directly experiences can count as knowledge, and that any statements that do not refer to independent atomized objects cannot be granted the status of justified knowledge.

 – Cosmina Craciunescu

  Continue reading: Social Constructivism and Positivism in the Context of International Relations

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  • Is Science Objective? – Logicial Positivism – Ashley, Jessica, Sophie (talonsphilosophy.wordpress.com)
    Logical Positivism is an outdated, radical idea that started in the Vienna Circle as far back as the early 1800s. The main view that logical positivists held is that no statement is legitimate or meaningful until it can be proven true or false. In the minds of logical positivists, personal opinions and values only warps science, and it can only be objective through the scientific method. During or class discussion, with the help of a spectrum of ideologies such as instrumentalism and postmodernism, the majority of the class came to the conclusion that science is not objective. This agreement was based on the idea that science is about the process of which we come to a conclusion, rather than the conclusion itself. Logical positivists would disagree with this analogy, as they believe that science is about coming to a proven legitimate conclusion rather than the process.
  • Logical Positivism (professorabapo.wordpress.com)
    The history of philosophy interested the Vienna Circle as well as the philosophical views of Hume and Kant. The main goal of their group was to search and find scientific truths. The Nazi party was not in favor of the Vienna Circle during this time as well as the Circle not agreeing with the views of the Nazis. The Vienna Circle wanted to resurrect and update the idea of Hume’s fork which included the idea that all propositions were either analytic, synthetic, or just plain nonsense. Their idea to update Hume’s fork included a man names Rudolf Carnap who presented a description stating basically that “in metaphysics which includes value and normative theory, logical analysis shows negative results that the statements in this domain are completely meaningless.”
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    The rise and fall of logical positivism is the most spectacular philosophical story of the twentieth century. Rising to prominence in the second quarter of the twentieth century, it swept away all contenders, and became widely accepted throughout the academia. Logical positivism provided a particular understanding of the nature of knowledge, as well as that of science and of scientific methodology. The foundations of the social sciences were re-formulated in the light of this new understanding of what science is. Later on, it became clear that the central tenets of the positivist philosophy were wrong. Logical positivism had a “spectacular crash,” and there was some dispute about who had “killed” logical positivism
  • The Legal Positivism Of The Elite: A Slippery Slope Toward Tyranny (forbes.com)
    To the legal positivist, there are no immutable principles, no moral absolutes. All is relative, and human legislation and regulation are more a matter of convenience or expedience or personal preference than attempts to codify permanent standards of right and wrong.If law is something malleable and unmoored from immutable principles, then who decides what is legal and illegal? How does a society determine the guidelines that govern how individuals relate to each other?The unspoken assumption of legal positivism—which is an important pillar of the progressive and socialist ideologies that predominate in the social science departments on most college campuses today—is that the most enlightened members of society should use legislation to design and build a “great society.”
  • On methodological issues (IV): Austrian Method vs Positivism (jaimemartinez87.wordpress.com)
    the peculiar nature of social sciences implies, following the austrian model, that the method of research must be different from the method applied in natural sciences. An essentialist method based on the axioms of human action whereby propositions are logically and aprioristically deduced.
  • Quote for the Day – C.S. Peirce’s Refutation of Positivism (philosophyandpsychology.wordpress.com)
    Positivism “appears” false, a modesty born from his doctrine of fallibilism
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    Peirce’s point seems to be that Positivism fails to live up to its own standards because if we suppose the gold standard for knowledge is “direct observation”, how can we be sure that our observation was really and not seemingly direct? To verify that our observation was direct, we need a direct observation that our observation was direct. Thus, Positivism will either lead to an infinite regress or bottom out at a direct observation that we haven’t directly observed is a direct observation.
  • Positivism (aroojbhattiblog.wordpress.com)
    he chief results of empiriocriticism are theories that concern concepts and scientific laws very different from those of classical positivism. Forms of positivism that developed later, including logical positivism and neopositivism, which are directly related to critical positivism. Positivism and more usually logical positivism is also used to refer to the radical empiricism and scientism advanced at the beginning of the 20th century by the Vienna Circle. It is considered to be the main influence on sociological positivism, through the philosophy of theorists including Czech-American philosopher Ernest Nagel (1901-1985), philosopher of science Carl Gustav Hempel (1905-1997) and American sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld (1903-1976).

 

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