Tag Archives: Populist vote

Francis Fukuyama and ‘The End of History?’

image from BloggingHeads.tv podcast

American political scientist, political economist, and author Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama in 2015

The American writer and political theorist Francis Fukuyama wrote

“Human beings never existed in a pre-­social state. The idea that human beings at one time existed as isolated individuals is not correct.”

In his seminal 1989 essay ‘The End of History?’ he also wrote

‘What we may be witnessing is the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.’

Fukuyama trying to convey silent messages through stories about the evolution of democratic societies he continued

‘With the fall of the Soviet Union the struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one’s life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands.’

The End of History and the Last Man.jpg

The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay “The End of History?”, published in the international affairs journal The National Interest.

Fukuyama did not suggest that the end of history meant the end of wars or conflicts, but rather that capitalism and Western-style liberal democracy were the culmination of human political development and would not, and could not, be transcended. He beliefs that the triumph of liberal democracy at the end of the Cold War marked the last ideological stage in the progression of human history. The initial political challenge having to escape beyond tribalism and the “tyranny of cousins”.

For Fukuyama, tribal organisation responds to structural imperatives in social evolution but also blocks the path to further development. The early account of the origins of state-like forms relies heavily on Lawrence Keeley’s military-focused argument in War Before Civilisation (1996) and does not consider the evidence assembled by Keith Otterbein in How War Began (2004): that warfare greatly declined in importance following the hunting to extinction of the larger mammals. Keeley himself grants that early settlement cultures, such as the Natufian,

“furnish no indication of warfare at all”. {Robin BlackburnThe Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution, By Francis Fukuyama}

We can see that in the West the majority prefers a capitalist system and in several industrialised countries people are a lot afraid of what smells social or communist. Fukuyama thinks that all states are going to adopt a form of capitalist liberal democracy. It was an argument contested from almost the moment he finished writing his essay.
The rise of Islamism, the unleashing of ethnic conflicts, the challenge posed by China – a myriad developments, his critics suggested, questioned the presumption of an end of history.

Donald Trump’s Presidential victory was one of the signs how politicians would easily be able to lure people in false ideas, by their words. The last few years we have seen a seemingly unstoppable rise of populist forces throughout Europe.

Many will probably see how in the quarter of a century since Fukuyama wrote his essay, politics, particularly in the West, has indeed shifted away from ‘ideological struggle’ towards

‘the endless solving of technical problems’.

The broad ideological divides that characterized politics for much of the past two hundred years have been eroded. Politics has become less about competing visions of the kinds of society people want than a debate about how best to manage the existing political system, a question more of technocratic management rather than of social transformation.

What might more come to an end is the believe of people in political systems and in politicians. Lots of people are convinced that politicians are not listening to them and are mostly just working for themselves and trying to get the best paid job.
The majority of politicians have lost connection with the ordinary people who want to feel as if they are justly recognised and that their voice can be heard. The last few years they feel more they are mocked at, nobody taking their voice seriously. Politicians should come to know that this desire to experience both personal and collective recognition is inescapable to the modern human condition.

Liberal democratic states that Fukuyama so vigorously defended in “The End of History” have not responded well to the challenges of pluralism.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, few believed in an alternative to capitalism, not seeing that the Soviet Union was not really the best representative of communism, because it had more dictators than real communist leaders. Communist parties crumbled, while social democratic parties remade themselves, cutting ties to their traditional working class constituencies while reorienting themselves as technocratic parties. Trade unions weakened and social justice campaigns eroded.

It seemed that not only in Europe social movements and political organizations eroded,  and the far-right movements gained space. Local people wanted to become recognised and wanted to look upon social change through the lens of their own cultures, identities, goals and ideals.

Many sections of the working class have found themselves politically voiceless at the very time their lives have become more precarious, as jobs have declined, public services savaged, austerity imposed, and inequality risen. Many also came to see all those immigrants as a danger for their own position, their jobs and income as well as being afraid of loosing their culture.

Having their world coming to an end.

Lots of people in charge of the working of society did not see the discontent many their votes expressed.

Prominent alt-rightists were instrumental in organising the “Unite the Right” rally in Charlottesville, Virginia in August 2017. Here, rally participants carry Confederate battle flags, Gadsden flags and a Nazi flag.

In Europe and America, people have become disaffected with the old order and felt more attraction for those who promised heaven on earth and for them “a great nation” again. Many of the opposition movements that give voice to that disaffection of the labourers, are shaped not by progressive ideals but by sectarian politics, and rooted in religious or ethnic identity. The Islamist AKP in Turkey or the Hindu nationalist BJP in India are the equivalents of the Front National in France or the alt right, far-right, white supremacist, white nationalist, white separatist, anti-immigration and antisemitic movement in America and Europe.

Those growing right-wing and far- or extreme-right-wing groups should make us aware of the severity of the present political situation. We are witnessing a globally disinformation movement which is creating more hatred and racism as well setting up people against others for wrong reasons.

The current tumult is the result of struggles for recognition that remain unshaped by progressive movements, of ideological struggles in a post-ideological world.

Demand for recognition of one’s identity is a master concept that unifies much of what is going on in world politics today. In his new book: Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment Francis Fukuyama looks at the new layers of meaning of the voters or citizen’s identity.

Fukuyama believes that the focus on self separates people from their communities. The demand for identity cannot be transcended and therefore people must begin to shape identity in a way that supports rather than undermines democracy.
When coming to know the self one can not ignore the connection with religious feelings. One aspect of wisdom is recognizing your need for The One Being outside man.

Christianity succeeds in diminishing family ties when the Church takes a strong stand against practices which enhanced the power of lineages such as cousin marriage, divorce, adoption and marriage to the widows of dead relatives. The looser family pattern favoured by the practices of Latin Christianity have the effect of channelling assets to the Church itself (eg through widows’ bequests). Fukuyama further urges that “contrary to Marx, capitalism was the consequence rather than the cause of a change in social relationships”. Yet he soon acknowledges that

“the most convincing argument for the shift has been given by the social anthropologist Jack Goody“,

an authority whose work could be seen as a distinctive fruit of Cambridge Marxism. {Robin BlackburnThe Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution, By Francis Fukuyama}

Fukuyama has the idea that the individualistic sense of identity comes to the fore during periods of modernisation in which people fled from rural areas into the cities and were confronted with a mass of different dialects or languages, religions and cultures and were aware of a sense of the difference between where they were and where they are now. Today in some way many people seem to be lost or are so much afraid of such confrontation they do hope their politicians can solve that problem of difference between the inhabitants of their villages, cities and countries.

Fukuyama notes the ways in which questions of identity politics have come to be regarded as synonymous with the right. Donald Trump supporters are animated around the removal of Confederate statues and the president’s lack of defence to political correctness is a significant mobilising force on the right.

Intimidation and efforts to control people have become the present day norm for many politicians, who gain a lot of popularity because many fall for their lies. That virus threatening democracy has not only infected the United States but also the European Union. As such we may see that identity politics has become the political form of cultural fragmentation of these days, and is corrosive of some features of an effective democracy – social cohesion, talking with strangers and working across the aisle.

According to me the politicians do have to give an identity to the people again and have to show them that we all have more in common with each other than what divides us.

It is a “we” who are the same, and not a “we” who are strangers dwelling together despite our differences. {Jeff RichIdentity Crisis – some theses on identity politics}

The End of the End of History?

History shall continue and show how man tries to find different political solutions and ways to govern a country. Man shall have to find a way to make it that by the globalisation more and more people would be going to see the richness of a multicultural society, instead of fearing it.

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Read also

  1. Our political systems and juggling with human laws
  2. Declaration of war against Islam and Christianity
  3. Declining commitment to democracy : What’s going on around the world ?
  4. Collision course of socialist and capitalist worlds
  5. Subcutaneous power for humanity 2 1950-2010 Post war generations
  6. The Free Market (and all that) did not bring down the Berlin Wall
  7. Common Goods, people and the Market
  8. Pushing people in a corner danger for indoctrination and loss of democratic values
  9. Populism endangering democracy
  10. An European alliance or a populist alliance
  11. British Parliament hostage its citizens for even more months
  12. American social perception, classes and fear mongering
  13. United in an open society relying not on command and control but on freedom
  14. Capitalism and economic policy and Christian survey

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Further related

  1. The Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution, By Francis Fukuyama
  2. What Do We Mean When We Say Something Is Political? — Recommended Readings
  3. The Sisyphean Task at the Core of Identity Politics
  4. Fukuyama has a new book on identity
  5. Little Theories
  6. The Decline of Liberalism
  7. Identity
  8. Identity Crisis – some theses on identity politics
  9. We’re in This Together Now 
  10. Two Books by Francis Fukuyama
  11. What Fukuyama got right.
  12. From ‘End Of History’ To ‘End Of Democracy’ – Why Fukuyama Now Likes China
  13. “Echoing Margaret Thatcher’s dictum that ‘there is no alternative’ …
  14. Social Psychology and Religious Behavior
  15. Francis Fukuyama and technology
  16. Eurasianism: The Struggle For The Multi-Polar World

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Filed under Being and Feeling, History, Knowledge & Wisdom, Lifestyle, Political affairs, Religious affairs, Social affairs, Welfare matters, World affairs

Looking at an American nightmare

It looks like the United States has awakened not from a bad dream but in a next night mare.

Having spent the majority of his adult life as a theatre artist throughout the Southeast, John Ellis as columnist of the American online media company PJ Media (originally known as Pajamas Media) an operator of an eponymous conservative news, opinion and commentary collaborative blog that was founded in 2004, has some good comments you should have a look at.

He knows

We are called to show our love for each other by surrendering our rights to each other. {4 Really Bad Reasons to Quit Your Church}

Running up to the 2016 election of the 45th president of the United States John Ellis found himself in a national nightmare which he taught would conclude on the 8th of November. At that time many were holding their breath in worried anticipation that an even worse nightmare was about to begin.

On November the 2nd he wrote

Sadly, the late hours of November 8 may very well find me in agreement that a new national nightmare is imminent. Unlike many, if not most, however, I believe that whatever nightmare is looming, it will be short-lived and may very well give way to a new and improved conservative movement. Strangely, my optimism is a product of Donald Trump. {Divisions Over Trump Reveal Integrity Within the Conservative Movement}

 

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After it got know that the president elect was going to be Donald Trump in several places of the different states people came together on the streets to show their disgust and anger about the outcome of this election.

For many all over the world it looked really surreal and for some this Kafkan story was to be expected whilst others never thought it would be ever possible to have Donald J. Trump being the President-Elect of the U.S.A. Because of the unjust political system in the U.S.A., not giving those with not enough money the possibility to come up as presidential candidate and not taking into account the populist vote, but giving everything in the hands of the College of Electors, the one with the biggest mouth and making the people afraid most, got the victory. Trump with his vile words and vitriol gained the seat of presidency.

The man who does not dare to look a person straight in the eyes, not even the president of America, himself looked surprised with his victory and had calmed down for his first speech as presidentelect.

The President-elect met the current Awesome President Obama in the White House. It’s interesting to see a captured shot of a handshake between two wildly different men. One of stoic principle, defined career, grace, majesty and presence. The other, a man who can’t or won’t straighten his shoulders and who won’t look his President in the eye for the handshake. Obama, the pinnacle of underdog achievement in America stared straight into the face of the pillar of white, moneyed elitism and the latter closed his eyes and dropped his chin by an inch. {Acknowledgement} – Photo; AAP

The man who did not show any interest in decent morals, principles, compassion or empathy who managed to saw division and hate now got the stings in hand to lead one of the biggest nations of the world.

In The America where so many call onto their Constitution and Free Rights, lots of people call themselves Christian but do not seem to show a real Christian attitude. In the country which came big on the work of many slaves, from Africa (black people) and Europe (light coloured, Spanish, Italian and Polish people) those so called Christians do not seem to have a place in what they call “their country”, though they robbed it form the indigenous peoples, the “Red Indians“, for what they call foreigners and coloured people. Once more the U.S.A proved how the colour of skin is going to make it if you are liked or disgusted. When Hispanics, African-Americans, Latinos, tend to be more racist towards white people, for some, they have to look for the reason or the cause of this problem. When you look at the sheriffs or how police often treats Afro-Americans you can imagine how taken by fear such people  may be when they are pulled at the side of the road.

Some may think

the media dramatizes everything, playing it up, making it seem as if everyone is out to get the minorities. {To The Trump America (The Truth About Racism)}

but in the rest of the world enough awful stories are heard how people are still discriminated and what impression should we get when even a candidate, who now has become president elect, spoke about “monkeys” when he was talking about the “black people“, “jigaboos“, “niggers” or “Negroes“.

Naturally we may never generalise, but throughout the election campaign we heard so many sayings, so many statements that can not let us think otherwise that the discrimination is still deep seated in the heart of many Americans, also in many so called Christian Americans. Lots of those so called Christians also made it clear in “their country”, there is no place for an other religion than theirs. And for them Islam is something of the devil (by which they mean a sort of torturous being from beneath the earth or from outer space). For lots of white Americans all evil comes from those Muslims who dare to come to live in their sacred Christian country.

For many it was heaven to hear how Trump would make done by the threat of terrorism which became an opportunity for an extended global vision. But Americans do not need a global vision now. They are mostly concerned about their internal affairs and want to protect their own goods and make sure to earn as  much as they can, even if they have to use such things which are very demanding for the environment.

Trump brought for many the solution with the change he promises, making their country great again. How, Trump never clearly explained, but they will trust him because he is a good business man and knows how to handle things.

Though when we know that this election was all about ethnic nationalism and racial and religious intolerance we in the West wonder how the wounds now shall be mended.

A 29 year old African American male living in the United States, there since 1995 when his family and he immigrated to the US at the age of 9 years, wrote about this November 2016 election and Trump

His election was the work, almost entirely, of white people. More than 90 per cent of Americans who voted for Mr. Trump were white, and most white U.S. voters, both men and women, cast a ballot for him (even though his opponent got more votes over all). And at least 90 per cent of non-white Americans did not vote for him. This was a white riot – an angry, rejectionist turn by a deeply pessimistic majority within the white population against the far more hopeful and inclusive politics of the rest of the country. {The real reason Donald Trump got elected? We have a white extremism problem (Thanks To White Idiots)}

In that light all have to remember that not all white people are falling into political extremism and not all coloured people take aversion for the white people.

Those who are accepting the differences of skin colour, gender, religious beliefs, should now clearly let their voice be heard as well. But not by lowering themselves on the same level as Trump, by taking on an indecent attitude, using violence or awful words.

John Ellis, like many American Christians adamantly believes in two distinct genders.

We believe that God created men and women to reflect who He is in different ways. Telling women to “suck it up” or passing off jokes about sexual assault (which I don’t believe were mere jokes, for the record) as guys being guys and locker room talk lets them know that the liberal lie about gender being a social construct will be co-opted by Christian men when convenient. Men who defend Trump have abdicated their God-given role to stand up for and protect women. And for that, I am angry, almost sinfully so. Apart from God’s grace, it will hard for me to consistently live out Romans 13:1-2 these next four years. {There Are Some Important Tests Ahead for #NeverTrump Christians}

Many American Christians do not seem to see how denigrating Trump thinks about the woman being, so if Trump would be the right guy to defend women, we doubt. Many Americans also seems to forget that all human beings are created in the image of God and that we all should respect all sorts of people, from whatever gender they may be.

For Donald Trump, who told the press he even doesn’t trust his wife with her vote:

“The lines outside polling stations were much shorter when women weren’t allowed to vote.” {Donald Trump on many occasions}

Christians also should ponder about their place of diversity, on what it means to have a president who is endorsed by the Ku Klux Klan. They with us in Europe should be on our “quivive”, be alert, noticing that this election, both the campaign and the result, will make it harder to defend democracy when talking to authoritarians. the Capitalist world has a real problem. Though in the United States lots of the people may call themselves Christian, they have gone far away from the Biblical teachings and do not show that they are following the teachings of the man whose name they use for their group. The Nazarene rabbi, was a humble teacher of peace, who instigated a peace movement, what was called the sect the Way, and was not the founder of a hate carrying excluding community.

Today we do find a divided country where people who say they are Christian want to exclude those who are different from them. They may feel a man should copulate with a woman and have children, but do not want to accept two men or two women living together to have children. They want to feel good in their skin, but do not want others to feel good in their skin and want to forbid others changing their ‘outer’ looks or gender.

As Trump expressed he “loves the poorly educated”, “keep people dumb so that you can use them”, which also shall make it that Trump shall be able to do whatever he wants, with the knowledge that

“I could shoot someone on Fifth Avenue and I wouldn’t lose any votes.” {saying of Donald Trump}

Donald Trump enters the Oscar De LA Renta Fash...

Donald Trump enters the Oscar De LA Renta Fashion Show, New York. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

We in the West could see a sexist, racist fascist, though got the impression in the States of America not many saw that. We also noticed that in the States many Christians promoted Trump instead Jesus or instead for calling good common sense and to go for the person who does not go in against the value of freedom and democracy.

In the land where so many hate the Gospel of Jesus Christ and so much hate the Word of Allah or God, and where there has to be a new scapegoat for all the troubles that come over America, because they cannot pick so much any more on the blacks, people could find some one who doesn’t give a rip about others nor about religion, who promised change and to push out that motley crew, and they thought he would be worth to vote for.

Now the dices cast, we shall have to see how it is going to turn out.

The democratic voice has to allow protesters to retort. The state shall have to show it allows riposting, but those who do not agree with the outcome should examine how it could come so far.

In case

Adding a taunting “us” versus “them” in regards to American politics drives an unbiblical wedge between the gospel witness of the Church and unbelievers. {Christians Should Be Promoting Jesus, Not Donald Trump}

English: Trump

Trump (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

American Christians should also examine their heart and check if they are prepared to take on such an attitude Jesus took on for those around him. are they (at last) willing to accept that there may be people who think differently than them, or who want to live differently than they? Should they also not give to the Caesar what belongs to the ruler and respect the regulations that ruler has taken to govern the country? Christians know, as long as they do not go in against the rules of God, they should respect and follow the rules of the country they are living in. They, who claim to be Christian should keep to the Christian laws, of which the golden rule is to love one another, no matter what he or she  has done or how he or she feels or want to be.

The last few moths we have seen many so called Christians who enjoyed the mud throwing Trump and joined him too. Now we also find other Christians who go on the streets fighting, instead of expressing themselves with respect for other man’s goods.

Instead of taking the opportunity to demonstrate love and grace by extending the Gospel of Jesus Christ, it appears that American Christians are instead kicking mud in the face of their vanquished foes. If this applies to you, fellow Christian, shame on you! {Christians Should Be Promoting Jesus, Not Donald Trump}

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Preceding articles

On the 11th hour…

Children of Men

Freedom and amendments, firearms and abortions

Responses to Radical Muslims and Radical Christians

Entry 2. Unite our voices

Mountains of information, disinformation and breaking away

Max Lucado: I Had a Dream That Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump Reached a Truce

Leaders in disguise

Looking at man’s closest friend

Study says highlighting gender leads to stereotypes

Happiness mapping and getting over gender mapping

Gender connections

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Additional articles

  1. 150 Years after the 13th Amendment
  2. Walls,colours, multiculturalism, money to flow, Carson, Trump and consorts
  3. Scepticals of the Bible
  4. Refugee crisis, terrorist attacks and created fear
  5. Coming closer to the end of 2015 and the end for Donald Trump as presidential candidate
  6. Islamophobia Must be Fought and Defeated
  7. God Isn’t a Republican
  8. American Christianity no longer resembles its Founder
  9. Fearmongering succeeded and got the bugaboo a victory
  10. Blinded crying blue murder having being made afraid by a bugaboo
  11. Some quotes Americans should remember when going to the ballot office
  12. When so desperate to hold onto power
  13. The clean sweeper of the whole caboodle
  14. A strong and wise fighter who keeps believing in America
  15. Brexit No. 2 Blow-up
  16. Voted against their system
  17. Nigel Farage called Donald Trump’s victory ‘bigger than Brexit’
  18. Stand Up
  19. Gender roles and Multitasking parents
  20. Avoiding the big questions
  21. Gender Roles, What?
  22. Belonging to or being judged by
  23. Growing rift between observant parents and their children

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  8. Great American Harry Reid Says “Trump’s Election Does Not Feel Like America” — Where’s Hillary?
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  33. North Carolina GOP Condemns Ku Klux Klan’s Plans to Hold Parade Celebrating Trump Win
  34. First responders to Trump’s election
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  37. Weekend Reading: November 11, 2016
  38. The Fight
  39. White supremacists and EU far-right leaders praise Donald Trump election win
  40. After the fall….what kind of protest follows?
  41. David Duke Flips Out at Louisiana Senate Debate, Says Clinton Deserves the ‘Electric Chair’ for ‘Treason’
  42. Pepper spray flies as students protest white supremacist David Duke’s remarks at black college
  43. Right-wing extremism bigger threat in USA than radical Muslims. KKK strength doubles in one year
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  46. #InsteadOfBacon Miley Cyrus – Hillary shows the progress we’ve made towards gender equalit…
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  49. Lonely – 12/11/16
  50. Death and Taxes: A Road Trip, A Funeral, and Election Results
  51. The Deadliest Year For Us!
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  53. Temporary Closing
  54. The Left and transgender: “work with trans people, not against them”?
  55. ‘Mom and dad’ among phrases banned under university’s new gender guidelines
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  57. Caring for Yourself as You Parent After a Trump Election
  58. There is Light in the Dark: #TransLawHelp Connects Lawyers With Trans Individuals
  59. Make America a great Horror again!
  60. 2016 Post Election Prayer
  61. Trumpland: white women, why, and where to now
  62. Time to Act
  63. Can we talk about Gender on Sunday?
  64. Post Election: Daring to Hope?
  65. Is Trump bad for trans people?
  66. Day 1 of President of hate.

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Filed under Activism and Peace Work, Being and Feeling, Crimes & Atrocities, History, Lifestyle, Political affairs, Religious affairs, Social affairs, World affairs