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Francis Fukuyama and ‘The End of History?’

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American political scientist, political economist, and author Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama in 2015

The American writer and political theorist Francis Fukuyama wrote

“Human beings never existed in a pre-­social state. The idea that human beings at one time existed as isolated individuals is not correct.”

In his seminal 1989 essay ‘The End of History?’ he also wrote

‘What we may be witnessing is the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.’

Fukuyama trying to convey silent messages through stories about the evolution of democratic societies he continued

‘With the fall of the Soviet Union the struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one’s life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands.’

The End of History and the Last Man.jpg

The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay “The End of History?”, published in the international affairs journal The National Interest.

Fukuyama did not suggest that the end of history meant the end of wars or conflicts, but rather that capitalism and Western-style liberal democracy were the culmination of human political development and would not, and could not, be transcended. He beliefs that the triumph of liberal democracy at the end of the Cold War marked the last ideological stage in the progression of human history. The initial political challenge having to escape beyond tribalism and the “tyranny of cousins”.

For Fukuyama, tribal organisation responds to structural imperatives in social evolution but also blocks the path to further development. The early account of the origins of state-like forms relies heavily on Lawrence Keeley’s military-focused argument in War Before Civilisation (1996) and does not consider the evidence assembled by Keith Otterbein in How War Began (2004): that warfare greatly declined in importance following the hunting to extinction of the larger mammals. Keeley himself grants that early settlement cultures, such as the Natufian,

“furnish no indication of warfare at all”. {Robin BlackburnThe Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution, By Francis Fukuyama}

We can see that in the West the majority prefers a capitalist system and in several industrialised countries people are a lot afraid of what smells social or communist. Fukuyama thinks that all states are going to adopt a form of capitalist liberal democracy. It was an argument contested from almost the moment he finished writing his essay.
The rise of Islamism, the unleashing of ethnic conflicts, the challenge posed by China – a myriad developments, his critics suggested, questioned the presumption of an end of history.

Donald Trump’s Presidential victory was one of the signs how politicians would easily be able to lure people in false ideas, by their words. The last few years we have seen a seemingly unstoppable rise of populist forces throughout Europe.

Many will probably see how in the quarter of a century since Fukuyama wrote his essay, politics, particularly in the West, has indeed shifted away from ‘ideological struggle’ towards

‘the endless solving of technical problems’.

The broad ideological divides that characterized politics for much of the past two hundred years have been eroded. Politics has become less about competing visions of the kinds of society people want than a debate about how best to manage the existing political system, a question more of technocratic management rather than of social transformation.

What might more come to an end is the believe of people in political systems and in politicians. Lots of people are convinced that politicians are not listening to them and are mostly just working for themselves and trying to get the best paid job.
The majority of politicians have lost connection with the ordinary people who want to feel as if they are justly recognised and that their voice can be heard. The last few years they feel more they are mocked at, nobody taking their voice seriously. Politicians should come to know that this desire to experience both personal and collective recognition is inescapable to the modern human condition.

Liberal democratic states that Fukuyama so vigorously defended in “The End of History” have not responded well to the challenges of pluralism.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, few believed in an alternative to capitalism, not seeing that the Soviet Union was not really the best representative of communism, because it had more dictators than real communist leaders. Communist parties crumbled, while social democratic parties remade themselves, cutting ties to their traditional working class constituencies while reorienting themselves as technocratic parties. Trade unions weakened and social justice campaigns eroded.

It seemed that not only in Europe social movements and political organizations eroded,  and the far-right movements gained space. Local people wanted to become recognised and wanted to look upon social change through the lens of their own cultures, identities, goals and ideals.

Many sections of the working class have found themselves politically voiceless at the very time their lives have become more precarious, as jobs have declined, public services savaged, austerity imposed, and inequality risen. Many also came to see all those immigrants as a danger for their own position, their jobs and income as well as being afraid of loosing their culture.

Having their world coming to an end.

Lots of people in charge of the working of society did not see the discontent many their votes expressed.

Prominent alt-rightists were instrumental in organising the “Unite the Right” rally in Charlottesville, Virginia in August 2017. Here, rally participants carry Confederate battle flags, Gadsden flags and a Nazi flag.

In Europe and America, people have become disaffected with the old order and felt more attraction for those who promised heaven on earth and for them “a great nation” again. Many of the opposition movements that give voice to that disaffection of the labourers, are shaped not by progressive ideals but by sectarian politics, and rooted in religious or ethnic identity. The Islamist AKP in Turkey or the Hindu nationalist BJP in India are the equivalents of the Front National in France or the alt right, far-right, white supremacist, white nationalist, white separatist, anti-immigration and antisemitic movement in America and Europe.

Those growing right-wing and far- or extreme-right-wing groups should make us aware of the severity of the present political situation. We are witnessing a globally disinformation movement which is creating more hatred and racism as well setting up people against others for wrong reasons.

The current tumult is the result of struggles for recognition that remain unshaped by progressive movements, of ideological struggles in a post-ideological world.

Demand for recognition of one’s identity is a master concept that unifies much of what is going on in world politics today. In his new book: Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment Francis Fukuyama looks at the new layers of meaning of the voters or citizen’s identity.

Fukuyama believes that the focus on self separates people from their communities. The demand for identity cannot be transcended and therefore people must begin to shape identity in a way that supports rather than undermines democracy.
When coming to know the self one can not ignore the connection with religious feelings. One aspect of wisdom is recognizing your need for The One Being outside man.

Christianity succeeds in diminishing family ties when the Church takes a strong stand against practices which enhanced the power of lineages such as cousin marriage, divorce, adoption and marriage to the widows of dead relatives. The looser family pattern favoured by the practices of Latin Christianity have the effect of channelling assets to the Church itself (eg through widows’ bequests). Fukuyama further urges that “contrary to Marx, capitalism was the consequence rather than the cause of a change in social relationships”. Yet he soon acknowledges that

“the most convincing argument for the shift has been given by the social anthropologist Jack Goody“,

an authority whose work could be seen as a distinctive fruit of Cambridge Marxism. {Robin BlackburnThe Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution, By Francis Fukuyama}

Fukuyama has the idea that the individualistic sense of identity comes to the fore during periods of modernisation in which people fled from rural areas into the cities and were confronted with a mass of different dialects or languages, religions and cultures and were aware of a sense of the difference between where they were and where they are now. Today in some way many people seem to be lost or are so much afraid of such confrontation they do hope their politicians can solve that problem of difference between the inhabitants of their villages, cities and countries.

Fukuyama notes the ways in which questions of identity politics have come to be regarded as synonymous with the right. Donald Trump supporters are animated around the removal of Confederate statues and the president’s lack of defence to political correctness is a significant mobilising force on the right.

Intimidation and efforts to control people have become the present day norm for many politicians, who gain a lot of popularity because many fall for their lies. That virus threatening democracy has not only infected the United States but also the European Union. As such we may see that identity politics has become the political form of cultural fragmentation of these days, and is corrosive of some features of an effective democracy – social cohesion, talking with strangers and working across the aisle.

According to me the politicians do have to give an identity to the people again and have to show them that we all have more in common with each other than what divides us.

It is a “we” who are the same, and not a “we” who are strangers dwelling together despite our differences. {Jeff RichIdentity Crisis – some theses on identity politics}

The End of the End of History?

History shall continue and show how man tries to find different political solutions and ways to govern a country. Man shall have to find a way to make it that by the globalisation more and more people would be going to see the richness of a multicultural society, instead of fearing it.

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Read also

  1. Our political systems and juggling with human laws
  2. Declaration of war against Islam and Christianity
  3. Declining commitment to democracy : What’s going on around the world ?
  4. Collision course of socialist and capitalist worlds
  5. Subcutaneous power for humanity 2 1950-2010 Post war generations
  6. The Free Market (and all that) did not bring down the Berlin Wall
  7. Common Goods, people and the Market
  8. Pushing people in a corner danger for indoctrination and loss of democratic values
  9. Populism endangering democracy
  10. An European alliance or a populist alliance
  11. British Parliament hostage its citizens for even more months
  12. American social perception, classes and fear mongering
  13. United in an open society relying not on command and control but on freedom
  14. Capitalism and economic policy and Christian survey

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Further related

  1. The Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution, By Francis Fukuyama
  2. What Do We Mean When We Say Something Is Political? — Recommended Readings
  3. The Sisyphean Task at the Core of Identity Politics
  4. Fukuyama has a new book on identity
  5. Little Theories
  6. The Decline of Liberalism
  7. Identity
  8. Identity Crisis – some theses on identity politics
  9. We’re in This Together Now 
  10. Two Books by Francis Fukuyama
  11. What Fukuyama got right.
  12. From ‘End Of History’ To ‘End Of Democracy’ – Why Fukuyama Now Likes China
  13. “Echoing Margaret Thatcher’s dictum that ‘there is no alternative’ …
  14. Social Psychology and Religious Behavior
  15. Francis Fukuyama and technology
  16. Eurasianism: The Struggle For The Multi-Polar World

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Filed under Being and Feeling, History, Knowledge & Wisdom, Lifestyle, Political affairs, Religious affairs, Social affairs, Welfare matters, World affairs

Swallowed in the Sea but belonging to earth

The response to the refugee crisis so far has also raised profound questions about a failure of European principles, a trembling of the pillars on which the bloc was founded more than 20 years ago.

The European Union’s reputation, and its faith in Brussels, have suffered in the past few months, with sharp and vocal divisions among member states and continuing doubts about Greek economic sustainability.

The migrant crisis “risks bursting the E.U. at its weak seams,” said Stefano Stefanini, a former senior Italian ambassador now based in Brussels.

“It’s more dangerous than the Greek drama and more serious than the euro, because it challenges fundamental European accomplishments and beliefs.”

Refugees enter a registration camp after crossing the Greek-Macedonian border on Nov. 11. (Robert Atanasovski/Agence France-Presse via Getty Images)

A translator by degree, who loves writing, thinks that every day we have a choice but that some others do not have a choice. Talking about the refugees he writes

every single day we have so many decisions and choices to make or take, but not them. {Swallowed in the Sea but belong to Earth}

English: Water of the mediterranean sea

Water of the mediterranean sea (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

though he forget that they made a very important life changing choice, which was for most of them not so easy to make. though it is true

When they’re in the middle of the sea, where nobody can hear or see them, except for the lord, their choices are, to get lost or get found, to get safe or swallowed by the sea. {Swallowed in the Sea but belong to Earth}

they shall be very limited in their choices, but not without.

Those who might fear those refugees coming to their regions should wonder why those people left their families and their country of birth. for many of them there not only shall be the confrontation with totally different people, a total different culture, but also a grey air, cold and wheat region. How they would not long for their sunny country which nice temperatures?

We should not be angry on them, but should be cross whit those fighters and human smugglers. We should look at the politicians and figures behind the scenes.

Syria is considered the tragedy of the century, and it has been swallowed by the sea of war for the past five years, therefore the Mediterranean Sea will never be an exception. {Swallowed in the Sea but belong to Earth}

Those confronted with an ongoing war had to make the hard choice to leave everything behind what they loved. They made the choice to go to unknown places or to place where they heard from and got some information about. But what were the sources which fed them and what was the reason of those sources to bring them to certain countries, like Germany. Can it not be that they are just used as pawns in a game of ‘Stratego’ or ‘Chess’ to destabilise a part of the world where some states are trying to make one strong Union to be able to stand strong in the stream of the Great Powers, the United States of America and Russia, and to be able to cope with the growing powers of the East, India and China. Could it be that ISIS is a product of American in-action or a product of direct action?

The inhabitants of Europe should realise that they were formed by generations of mixed people coming from one or the other place in Europe and having built a culture over the years which many of them do find in danger,but when they would be strong enough believers they should not fear. The people behind ‘Islamic State‘ are very well aware that those living in Europe have become victims of capitalism and are mostly people who have no strong believes any more. For the ones who want to create a big caliphate it seems best to polarize Western society — to “destroy the grayzone,” as it says in its publications. Islamic State is pushing at an open door to divide Europeans. The group hopes frequent, devastating attacks in its name will provoke overreactions by European governments against innocent Muslims, thereby alienating and radicalising Muslim communities throughout the continent.

The last few years we have seen several attacks by individuals are small groups. Last weekend attack are different in the way that they were very organised and well managed. They are a proof that ISIS is getting better organised in Europe as well as in their battle fields.

Since January, European citizens fighting with the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria have provided online and material support to lethal operations in Paris, Copenhagen and near Lyon, France, as well as attempted attacks in London, Barcelona and near Brussels. Islamic State fighters are likely responsible for destroying the Russian airliner over the Sinai. These attacks are not random, nor are they aimed primarily at affecting Western policy in the Middle East. They are, rather, part of a militarily capable organization’s campaign to mobilize extremist actors already in Europe and to recruit new ones. {The Islamic State’s trap for Europe}

Some of those who entered Europe by the Mediterranean sea had also some other goals than the ones who were really hoping to find a better life in Europe. Those are also the ones we do find complaining about not having the right food or doing things which we consider not acceptable, like peeping in women’s shower cells or fighting with Afghans or others. They are in for their own selfishness and for stealing from the others. Their actions undermine the politicians their strategy to bring the refugees into different villages and to get them integrated. Such revolts against the people who are giving them a roof above their head makes the civilians angry and giving them a wrong picture of the Muslims and the refugees in general.

writes in her opinion piece for the Washington Post

Unfortunately, elements of European society are reacting as the Islamic State desires. Far-right parties have gained strength in many European countries. France’s National Front is expected to dominate local elections in northern France this winter; on Saturday, Marine Le Pen, its leader, declared “those who maintain links with Islamism” to be “France’s enemies.” The Danish People’s Party gained 21 percent of the vote in national elections in June on a nationalist, anti-Islamic platform. The anti-foreigner Sweden Democrats is steadily growing in popularity. {The Islamic State’s trap for Europe}

The Syrians had to make a choice and had to bear the sea. Now the Europeans have to be careful not to be swallowed by an equally dangerous sea of treason and hate, by making the wrong choice.

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Preceding articles:

Israeli leaders delight in Europe’s cruelty toward refugees

Human tragedy need to be addressed at source

Poster: Please help the refugees

Real progress leaves nobody behind

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Additional reading:

  1. Are people willing to take the responsibility for others
  2. If Europe fails on the question of refugees, then it won’t be the Europe we wished for
  3. State of Europe 2015 – Addressing Europe’s crises
  4. Schengen area and Freedom for Europeans being put to the test as never before
  5. Can We Pay The Price To Free Humanity?
  6. ISIS a product of American in-action or a product of direct action
  7. Complaining and fighting asylum seekers not giving signs of thankfulness
  8. bORDER-Gastrofest
  9. The New gulf of migration and seed for far right parties
  10. Asylum seekers crisis and Europe’s paralysis
  11. Britain’s position in an age of increasing globalisation
  12. French Muslims under attack
  13. Syrian but also Belgian connection to French attacks
  14. Islamic State pushing at an open door to divide Europeans

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Further reading:

  1. US, French Defense Ministers Discuss Campaign Against Islamic State
  2. The Nihilistic Assaults On Paris – OpEd
  3. Ordinary peace-loving person tries to make sense of terrorism
  4. The Liberal Islam Problem
  5. The France theater Attacks
  6. Paris attacks: What we know so far about the victims
  7. In Photos: As France mourns, Europe holds moment of silence in honour of Paris victims
  8. Post About it, Be About it: thoughts on social media activism
  9. Terrorists Infiltrated Europe Disguised as Refugees
  10. Reuters: Islamic State threatens attack on Washington, other countries
  11. Making ☮ : Where does the peace symbol come from?
  12. Paris, Pussies And Pinterest
  13. A Moment of Silence
  14. Passport found near Paris suicide bomber shows few security checks exist for migrants in the Balkans
  15. Facebook defends using Safety Check after Paris attacks
  16. “We The People Speak” Marketing Campaign
  17. When Compassion Imperils our Security
  18. TV Quiberon 24/7 WORLD – Minute’s silence for Paris victims
  19. I’m with you
  20. Celebrities mourn Nick Alexander, merch manager killed in Paris attack
  21. Anonymous declares war on Islamic State after Paris attacks
  22. BidenJam Returns: Lame-Duck VP Brings L.A. Road Closures Monday & Tuesday
  23. A Message About The Paris Attacks, And Also Peace
  24. French fighter jets bomb ISIL capital in Syria as ‘massive’ retaliation for Paris attacks
  25. Make no mistake, the Paris attacks were a result of Religious Fundamentalism
  26. Paris attacks deepen Republican opposition to Syrian refugee influx
  27. On the attacks in Paris.
  28. Disturbing comparisons
  29. Investigation on Paris attacks continues as authorities look for suspects

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