Tag Archives: Multicultural society

Francis Fukuyama and ‘The End of History?’

image from BloggingHeads.tv podcast

American political scientist, political economist, and author Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama in 2015

The American writer and political theorist Francis Fukuyama wrote

“Human beings never existed in a pre-­social state. The idea that human beings at one time existed as isolated individuals is not correct.”

In his seminal 1989 essay ‘The End of History?’ he also wrote

‘What we may be witnessing is the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.’

Fukuyama trying to convey silent messages through stories about the evolution of democratic societies he continued

‘With the fall of the Soviet Union the struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one’s life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands.’

The End of History and the Last Man.jpg

The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay “The End of History?”, published in the international affairs journal The National Interest.

Fukuyama did not suggest that the end of history meant the end of wars or conflicts, but rather that capitalism and Western-style liberal democracy were the culmination of human political development and would not, and could not, be transcended. He beliefs that the triumph of liberal democracy at the end of the Cold War marked the last ideological stage in the progression of human history. The initial political challenge having to escape beyond tribalism and the “tyranny of cousins”.

For Fukuyama, tribal organisation responds to structural imperatives in social evolution but also blocks the path to further development. The early account of the origins of state-like forms relies heavily on Lawrence Keeley’s military-focused argument in War Before Civilisation (1996) and does not consider the evidence assembled by Keith Otterbein in How War Began (2004): that warfare greatly declined in importance following the hunting to extinction of the larger mammals. Keeley himself grants that early settlement cultures, such as the Natufian,

“furnish no indication of warfare at all”. {Robin BlackburnThe Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution, By Francis Fukuyama}

We can see that in the West the majority prefers a capitalist system and in several industrialised countries people are a lot afraid of what smells social or communist. Fukuyama thinks that all states are going to adopt a form of capitalist liberal democracy. It was an argument contested from almost the moment he finished writing his essay.
The rise of Islamism, the unleashing of ethnic conflicts, the challenge posed by China – a myriad developments, his critics suggested, questioned the presumption of an end of history.

Donald Trump’s Presidential victory was one of the signs how politicians would easily be able to lure people in false ideas, by their words. The last few years we have seen a seemingly unstoppable rise of populist forces throughout Europe.

Many will probably see how in the quarter of a century since Fukuyama wrote his essay, politics, particularly in the West, has indeed shifted away from ‘ideological struggle’ towards

‘the endless solving of technical problems’.

The broad ideological divides that characterized politics for much of the past two hundred years have been eroded. Politics has become less about competing visions of the kinds of society people want than a debate about how best to manage the existing political system, a question more of technocratic management rather than of social transformation.

What might more come to an end is the believe of people in political systems and in politicians. Lots of people are convinced that politicians are not listening to them and are mostly just working for themselves and trying to get the best paid job.
The majority of politicians have lost connection with the ordinary people who want to feel as if they are justly recognised and that their voice can be heard. The last few years they feel more they are mocked at, nobody taking their voice seriously. Politicians should come to know that this desire to experience both personal and collective recognition is inescapable to the modern human condition.

Liberal democratic states that Fukuyama so vigorously defended in “The End of History” have not responded well to the challenges of pluralism.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, few believed in an alternative to capitalism, not seeing that the Soviet Union was not really the best representative of communism, because it had more dictators than real communist leaders. Communist parties crumbled, while social democratic parties remade themselves, cutting ties to their traditional working class constituencies while reorienting themselves as technocratic parties. Trade unions weakened and social justice campaigns eroded.

It seemed that not only in Europe social movements and political organizations eroded,  and the far-right movements gained space. Local people wanted to become recognised and wanted to look upon social change through the lens of their own cultures, identities, goals and ideals.

Many sections of the working class have found themselves politically voiceless at the very time their lives have become more precarious, as jobs have declined, public services savaged, austerity imposed, and inequality risen. Many also came to see all those immigrants as a danger for their own position, their jobs and income as well as being afraid of loosing their culture.

Having their world coming to an end.

Lots of people in charge of the working of society did not see the discontent many their votes expressed.

Prominent alt-rightists were instrumental in organising the “Unite the Right” rally in Charlottesville, Virginia in August 2017. Here, rally participants carry Confederate battle flags, Gadsden flags and a Nazi flag.

In Europe and America, people have become disaffected with the old order and felt more attraction for those who promised heaven on earth and for them “a great nation” again. Many of the opposition movements that give voice to that disaffection of the labourers, are shaped not by progressive ideals but by sectarian politics, and rooted in religious or ethnic identity. The Islamist AKP in Turkey or the Hindu nationalist BJP in India are the equivalents of the Front National in France or the alt right, far-right, white supremacist, white nationalist, white separatist, anti-immigration and antisemitic movement in America and Europe.

Those growing right-wing and far- or extreme-right-wing groups should make us aware of the severity of the present political situation. We are witnessing a globally disinformation movement which is creating more hatred and racism as well setting up people against others for wrong reasons.

The current tumult is the result of struggles for recognition that remain unshaped by progressive movements, of ideological struggles in a post-ideological world.

Demand for recognition of one’s identity is a master concept that unifies much of what is going on in world politics today. In his new book: Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment Francis Fukuyama looks at the new layers of meaning of the voters or citizen’s identity.

Fukuyama believes that the focus on self separates people from their communities. The demand for identity cannot be transcended and therefore people must begin to shape identity in a way that supports rather than undermines democracy.
When coming to know the self one can not ignore the connection with religious feelings. One aspect of wisdom is recognizing your need for The One Being outside man.

Christianity succeeds in diminishing family ties when the Church takes a strong stand against practices which enhanced the power of lineages such as cousin marriage, divorce, adoption and marriage to the widows of dead relatives. The looser family pattern favoured by the practices of Latin Christianity have the effect of channelling assets to the Church itself (eg through widows’ bequests). Fukuyama further urges that “contrary to Marx, capitalism was the consequence rather than the cause of a change in social relationships”. Yet he soon acknowledges that

“the most convincing argument for the shift has been given by the social anthropologist Jack Goody“,

an authority whose work could be seen as a distinctive fruit of Cambridge Marxism. {Robin BlackburnThe Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution, By Francis Fukuyama}

Fukuyama has the idea that the individualistic sense of identity comes to the fore during periods of modernisation in which people fled from rural areas into the cities and were confronted with a mass of different dialects or languages, religions and cultures and were aware of a sense of the difference between where they were and where they are now. Today in some way many people seem to be lost or are so much afraid of such confrontation they do hope their politicians can solve that problem of difference between the inhabitants of their villages, cities and countries.

Fukuyama notes the ways in which questions of identity politics have come to be regarded as synonymous with the right. Donald Trump supporters are animated around the removal of Confederate statues and the president’s lack of defence to political correctness is a significant mobilising force on the right.

Intimidation and efforts to control people have become the present day norm for many politicians, who gain a lot of popularity because many fall for their lies. That virus threatening democracy has not only infected the United States but also the European Union. As such we may see that identity politics has become the political form of cultural fragmentation of these days, and is corrosive of some features of an effective democracy – social cohesion, talking with strangers and working across the aisle.

According to me the politicians do have to give an identity to the people again and have to show them that we all have more in common with each other than what divides us.

It is a “we” who are the same, and not a “we” who are strangers dwelling together despite our differences. {Jeff RichIdentity Crisis – some theses on identity politics}

The End of the End of History?

History shall continue and show how man tries to find different political solutions and ways to govern a country. Man shall have to find a way to make it that by the globalisation more and more people would be going to see the richness of a multicultural society, instead of fearing it.

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Read also

  1. Our political systems and juggling with human laws
  2. Declaration of war against Islam and Christianity
  3. Declining commitment to democracy : What’s going on around the world ?
  4. Collision course of socialist and capitalist worlds
  5. Subcutaneous power for humanity 2 1950-2010 Post war generations
  6. The Free Market (and all that) did not bring down the Berlin Wall
  7. Common Goods, people and the Market
  8. Pushing people in a corner danger for indoctrination and loss of democratic values
  9. Populism endangering democracy
  10. An European alliance or a populist alliance
  11. British Parliament hostage its citizens for even more months
  12. American social perception, classes and fear mongering
  13. United in an open society relying not on command and control but on freedom
  14. Capitalism and economic policy and Christian survey

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Further related

  1. The Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution, By Francis Fukuyama
  2. What Do We Mean When We Say Something Is Political? — Recommended Readings
  3. The Sisyphean Task at the Core of Identity Politics
  4. Fukuyama has a new book on identity
  5. Little Theories
  6. The Decline of Liberalism
  7. Identity
  8. Identity Crisis – some theses on identity politics
  9. We’re in This Together Now 
  10. Two Books by Francis Fukuyama
  11. What Fukuyama got right.
  12. From ‘End Of History’ To ‘End Of Democracy’ – Why Fukuyama Now Likes China
  13. “Echoing Margaret Thatcher’s dictum that ‘there is no alternative’ …
  14. Social Psychology and Religious Behavior
  15. Francis Fukuyama and technology
  16. Eurasianism: The Struggle For The Multi-Polar World

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Filed under Being and Feeling, History, Knowledge & Wisdom, Lifestyle, Political affairs, Religious affairs, Social affairs, Welfare matters, World affairs

Institutional Racism

Not only the United States of America has its problems with racism. It is a growing problem in Europe as well where populism and nationalism are gaining terrain.

Several right-wing politicians are helping it to grow and use the immigration as their flagship to make people afraid for Mohammedanism. At the same time the other politicians are too much afraid to loose votes, by giving a clear voice against the exclusion of certain people and religions.

From the church, synagogues and mosques are not enough voices coming up and letting people see their true face.

We can not longer stand at the side and be silent. We do have to play our role to have people their eyes opened and to overcome to see the differences which are not and should not frighten us. We should take care to be in time to disarm those who take every effort to blacken others and to have those who have a gloomy side of things to see the world more positive and to see the others not as a threat.

We need the right people to show others are not the menace to fear, and that we can live together in peace with a multicultural society, which shall enrich us more than deteriorating us.

It is high time to see those to stand up who can and will be the ones who reform policing and empower all to build up one united society.

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To remember

  • Much of the resistance to government intervention and assistance comes down to a belief that “They” are getting the benefits – the mysterious “other” that is easily blamed for everything. It prevents us from having a useful discussion about “Us”, a free and united people ready to tackle the changes of our world bravely and directly.
  • White Privilege is generally little more than the benefit of the doubt. But when the volume is turned up and the noise is deafening, only baser senses remain. The simple benefit of the doubt often adrenalizes into violent, destructive action. {White Privilege}
  • A simple assumption accelerates into a terrible collision. {White Privilege}
  • society as a whole is still incapable of comprehending how simple yet terrible it is. {White Privilege}
  • We won’t end racism overnight, but we can continue to make progress.
  • There is a horrible lack of leadership everywhere in the developed world right now > requires strategic thinking, + strategy = horribly under-appreciated. {Strategy as Leadership}
  • separation between Strategy and Tactics is what usually trips people up. {Strategy as Leadership}
  • lack of leadership we see at the top = merely a reflection of the lack of understanding of leadership throughout our society, which is to say how to think strategically.{Strategy as Leadership}
  • institutional racism, =/= issue defeated head-on > Once lines are set => frozen. Everyone hunkered down in a defensive position, ready for the attacks. => quickly dissolves into trench warfare, = nasty game of inches rather than yards.
  • It will take understanding, love, patience, + humor to get at the heart of racism.
  • key = to engage it in a way that disarms majority of people who have racist thoughts but are empathetic enough to realize it is wrong. They need tools to cope and an invitation to stand proud rather than hunker down defensively.

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Preceding articles

If you’re going to be a hater, make sure you’ve done your homework.

Refusing to Be Silent

Tact? Knowing when it is better to remain silent!

My Multi-Cultural Childhood Could be the Answer to Racism & Xenophobia

Anti-Semitic pressure driving Jews out of Europe

It’s Time real lovers of God to Stand and Speak Out!

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Additional reading

  1. Martin Luther King’s Dream Today
  2. Immigration consternation
  3. Forms of slavery, human trafficking and disrespectful attitude to creation to be changed
  4. Migrants to the West #3
  5. Migrants to the West #8 Welbeing
  6. Speciesism and racism
  7. Rome mobilisation to say no to fascism and racism

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Related

  1. More about the Legacy of Race in Seventh-day Adventist Culture
  2. Anti-racism – definition of anti-racism by The Free Dictionary
  3. Jon Jones blasts Colby Covington for racism, throws shade after Fabricio Werdum altercation
  4. Social Issues: #2 Racial Prejudice and Racism
  5. Everyday racism
  6. AmeriKKKan Racism ~VS~ World Racism
  7. Institutional Racism Finally Addressed at Inquest into Toronto Police Killing of Andrew Loku

Barataria - The work of Erik Hare

For Dr. King’s Day, we have to acknowledge there is a war on between races.  It is a war which can only tear this nation apart, as it has done for centuries.  This,from 2016, is on how we have to engage it.

My thesis is this: there is nothing more important to the future of our nation than ending racism, particularly institutional racism. This has become a desperate matter of survival for far too many people when it comes to the issue of police killings. These tragedies happen disproportionately to minorities largely because of racism.

Yet the problem goes far beyond that. There is not a single issue in this nation which does not ultimately become polarized and frozen by race. Much of the resistance to government intervention and assistance comes down to a belief that “They” are getting the benefits – the mysterious “other” that is easily blamed for…

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Filed under Activism and Peace Work, Being and Feeling, Cultural affairs, Headlines - News, Juridical matters, Lifestyle, Political affairs, Re-Blogs and Great Blogs, Social affairs, World affairs

Letter to a Non-Christian Nation

The Nazarene Jew Jeshua, better known as Jesus Christ, was born in a multicultural society which was oppressed by the Roman victors, but Jesus warned others always to give the Caesar what belonged to the Caesar and not to go against political measures as long as those did not against God’s rules. Jesus his great and first commandment or golden rule to take an open position to other people, liking them as if they are our brothers and sisters is the most important rule which should feed every Christian to love his neighbour whatever his thoughts may be, an atheist, believing in pagan gods, believing in science or worshipping One God, the God of Abraham or worshipping themselves.

Those who call themselves Christian should normally worship the God of Abraham, Who is also the God of Jesus , the God of Isaac the God of the Jews and the God of the Muslims. We do agree the majority in Christendom may worship an other God than real Christians, Jews and Muslims do, because they have taken Jesus, the son of God also as their god. But the monotheist worshippers should also show respect to those trinitarian Christians, though they do not follow the Holy Scriptures, but human dogmatic teachings.

The trinitarian Christians also should come to see the importance of Jesus his teachings and what it means to show their love to others like Jesus loved the people around him and even gave his life for all of them, good but also bad people, all sinners.

In moments of crisis the real soul, the real feelings mostly comes to the surface, and then we come to know the real ‘I’ or the real person. Today with the refugee crisis, all Christians should show how they are united in Christ and are willing to open their arms, their hearts and their houses, for those who are in need.

Those who call themselves Christian should always carry in mind that Christianity is a love affair and may not forget the important sign of belief, to be chained by the brotherly love.

If we love one another, God lives in us

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To take note of:

  • Viktor Orban, Prime Minister of Hungary, grew up in a former communist regime + educated as an atheist, displays view of Christianity that could be questioned by the very sources of Christianity itself.
  • Jesus = great spiritual leader > has great respect for the habits, traditions, scriptures + laws of his people
  • traditions are not ends in themselves => directed towards a goal surpassing them
  • rules = means at the service of individual human beings and society as a whole
  • priority of neighbourly love = existing culture tested against extent to which it helps to avoid making victims + to which it allows for authentic human lives
  • salvation of the world = in the imitation of the way Jesus = look within own culture or social organization to the sources that allow to make  cultural or social traditions relative to the goal of neighbourly love

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Preceding articles:

Still Hope though Power generating long train of abuses

Daring to speak in multicultural environment

Refugees At The Border- A Blessing Or Burden?

Poster: Please Help The Refugees

The World Wide Refugee and Migrant Crisis and a possible solution for it

Social media and asylum seekers

Israeli leaders delight in Europe’s cruelty toward refugees

My two cents on the refugee crisis

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Additional reading:

  1. God loving people justified
  2. Experiencing God
  3. Do not forget the important sign of belief
  4. Christianity is a love affair
  5. The Law of Christ: Law of Love
  6. To be chained by love for another one
  7. Clothe yourselves with compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience
  8. A Living Faith #2 State of your faith
  9. A Living Faith #3 Faith put into action
  10. A Living Faith #5 Perseverance
  11. Guard well within yourself that treasure, kindness
  12. The first on the list of the concerns of the saint
  13. The task given to us to love each other
  14. The Greatest of These is Love
  15. If we love one another, God lives in us
  16. Agape, a love to share with others from the Fruit of the Spirit
  17. Love turns one person into two; and two into one
  18. Disciple of Christ counting lives and friends dear to them
  19. Incomplete without the mind of God
  20. Nurturing a close relationship with God
  21. Our relationship with God, Jesus and eachother
  22. Our way of life
  23. Golden rule for understanding in spiritual matters obedience
  24. Observing the commandments and becoming doers of the Word
  25. Sharing a common security and a common set of values
  26. Love and cultivate that which is pure
  27. Right to be in the surroundings
  28. Built on or Belonging to Jewish tradition #4 Mozaic and Noachide laws
  29. Mocking, Agitation and Religious Persecution
  30. Economic crisis danger for the rise of political extremism
  31. Americans wrongly informed about situation in Europe
  32. Fitting the bill in the North and in the East
  33. Rampaging, demolishing sacred sites and cultural heritage
  34. Continues Syrian conflict needing not only dialogue
  35. Can We Pay The Price To Free Humanity?
  36. Public not informed enough about Jihad terrorism in Belgium
  37. Are people willing to take the responsibility for others
  38. If Europe fails on the question of refugees, then it won’t be the Europe we wished for
  39. State of Europe 2015 – Addressing Europe’s crises
  40. Schengen area and Freedom for Europeans being put to the test as never before
  41. Europe’s refugees just follow the ancient routes for the peopling of Europe in the Neolithic
  42. Why Russia backs Assad: a view from Russia’s anti-imperialist left
  43. Propaganda war and ISIS
  44. African misery and women inequality
  45. Because of doing too much social work put to silence
  46. Meeting to focus on humanitarian issues for Syria
  47. Reflection for today: hating your brother
  48. The one who has not had a taste of love
  49. If You want to start winning the war
  50. Engaging the enemy
  51. What Jesus did: First things first
  52. Love envieth not
  53. No fear in love
  54. Live …
  55. Luck
  56. Work with joy and pray with love
  57. Blessed are those who freely give
  58. When we love we do not need laws
  59. The Spirit of God imparts love,inspires hope, and gives liberty
  60. Self-preservation is the highest law of nature
  61. Growth in character
  62. Spread love everywhere you go
  63. Love is like playing the piano
  64. Love will cure more sins than condemnation
  65. Tenderness and kindness are not signs of weakness and despair
  66. Those who make peace should plant peace like a seed
  67. God let my compassionate affection be tolerant and kind
  68. He sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him.
  69. Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love
  70. God demonstrates his own love
  71. Unconditional love
  72. Unarmed truth and unconditional love
  73. A treasure which can give me everything I need
  74. Life and attitude of a Christian

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Mimetic Margins

Viktor Orban Hungarian national galleryGermany’s Frankfurter Allgemeine newspaper published an op-ed by Orban in which he claimed that he was defending European Christianity against a Muslim influx by stopping thousands of refugees from leaving Hungary. […] “We shouldn’t forget that the people who are coming here grew up in a different religion and represent a completely different culture. Most are not Christian, but Muslim… That is an important question, because Europe and European culture have Christian roots,” he wrote. (From Muslims threaten Europe’s Christian identity, Hungary’s leader saysby Rick Noack, The Washington Post, September 3, 2015).

Dear Mr. Viktor Orban, Prime Minister of Hungary,

I know you grew up in a former communist regime and that you were educated as an atheist. Maybe that’s one of the reasons why you display a certain view of Christianity that could be questioned by the very sources of Christianity itself.

There is no such thing…

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