Tag Archives: Deforestation

Google Scholar: Actualization and interpretation in the Old Testament. Meaning, the rabid racism of messiah theology and its total negation of all heresy otherwise.

Conflict Resolution

GROVES, JOSEPH WHITE.Yale University. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 1979. 7926245.

[[[“””Wilhelm Vischer and Hans Hellbart do not merely separate the historical and the theological, but virtually eliminate the role of historical investigation by advocating Christological exegesis. In essence their approach is a return to a pre-critical Reformation theology which views the Old and New Testaments as a unified structure. The element which creates this unity is the pervading presence of the Messiah. The New Testament interprets the Old as Messianic prophecy and this interpretation is confirmed by a study of the Old Testament as a whole. Indeed, the true nature of the Old Testament is apparently only when one recognizes the pre-existence of Christ as the head of the Old Testament church. Consequently, both the unity of the Bible and the cause of that unity are beyond the scope of historical investigation, which can only end in confusion and uncertainty…

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Four ways to tackle the climate and biodiversity crises simultaneously

A landmark report by the world’s most senior climate and biodiversity scientists argues that the world will have to tackle the climate crisis and the species extinction crisis simultaneously, or not at all.

That’s because Earth’s land and ocean already absorbs about half of the greenhouse gases that people emit. Wild animals, plants, fungi and microbes help maintain this carbon sink by keeping soils, forests and other ecosystems healthy.

Failing to tackle climate change meanwhile will accelerate biodiversity loss, as higher temperatures and changing rainfall patterns make survival for many species more difficult. Both problems are intertwined, and so solutions to one which exacerbate the other are doomed to fail.

Luckily, there are options for addressing climate change and biodiversity loss together, called nature-based solutions. If implemented properly, these measures can enhance the richness and diversity of life on Earth, help habitats store more carbon and even reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, making ecosystems more resilient while slowing the rate at which the planet warms.

1. Protect and restore ecosystems

Everyone is familiar with the need to preserve tropical rainforests, but there are other pristine habitats, on land and in the ocean, which are in dire need of protection.

Mangrove swamps occupy less than 1% of Earth’s surface, but store the equivalent of 22 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide. That’s around two-thirds of total emissions from burning fossil fuels each year. These coastal habitats act as a home, nursery, and feeding ground for numerous species. More than 40 bird, ten reptile and six mammal species are only found in mangroves.

Under the canopy in a tropical mangrove forest.
Mangroves are particularly good at storing carbon. Velavan K/Shutterstock

Peatlands – those soggy ecosystems which include bogs, marshes and fens – store twice as much carbon as all the world’s forests. The top 15cm stores more carbon below ground than tropical rainforests do above ground. In the UK, peatlands store the equivalent of ten billion tonnes of carbon dioxide and host precious plant and animals such as red grouse, mountain hares and marsh earwort.

Unfortunately, more than 80% of the UK’s peatlands are degraded in some way. A single hectare of damaged peatland can emit more than 30 tonnes of carbon dioxide each year – equivalent to the yearly emissions of seven family cars.

Protecting these ecosystems can prevent carbon being released into the atmosphere. Restoring them where they’ve been damaged can suck carbon dioxide from the air and guarantee shelter for rare wildlife. Diverse natural systems also bounce back better from climate extremes than do species-poor, highly degraded systems, and will keep helping biodiversity and people even as Earth continues to warm.

2. Manage farmland and fisheries sustainably

Not all of the world’s land and ocean can be left to nature, but the land and ocean people use to produce food and other resources can be managed better.

People currently use about 25% of the planet’s land surface for growing food, extracting resources and living. The global food system contributes one-third of all greenhouse gas emissions.

Methods of farming – such as agroecology, which involves incorporating trees and habitats within farm fields – and sustainable fishing practices can protect and regenerate topsoil and seabed habitats, boosting biodiversity and improving how resilient these ecosystems are to climate change.

Rows of vegetable beds with lines of young trees.
Reforestation in tandem with food growing: lettuce, cauliflowers and tomatoes grow among saplings in Brazil. Luisaazara/Shutterstock

3. Create new forests – with care

People have already cut down three trillion trees – half of all the trees which once grew on Earth.

Creating new woodlands and forests can draw down atmospheric carbon and provide diverse habitats for a range of species, but great care must be taken to plant the right mix of trees in the right place. Vast plantations of non-native trees, particularly when they’re a single species, offer less useful habitat for wildlife, but a mix of native trees can benefit biodiversity and store more carbon in the long run.

A study in south-east China showed that forests containing several tree species stored twice as much carbon as the average single-species plantation.

We can do the same thing in the ocean by restoring seagrass meadows.

4. Shift to more plant-based diets

Globally, animal agriculture is a major contributor to biodiversity loss. Millions of hectares of Amazon rainforest, African Savanna and Central Asian grassland have been ploughed up to create pasture and plant feed crops for the cows, pigs and chickens that we eat. Nearly 60% of all planet-warming emissions from food production originate in livestock rearing.

Reducing demand for meat and dairy, through diet changes and cutting waste, would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions – which itself benefits biodiversity by limiting climate change – it would also lower pressure for farmland and so reduce deforestation and habitat destruction, freeing more land for the wider use of nature-based solutions.

A vegan burger with a side of sweet potato fries.
A vegan diet is better for wildlife and the climate than a high-meat one. Rolande PG/Unsplash, CC BY-SA

Meat, especially highly processed meat, has been linked to high blood pressure, heart disease and bowel and stomach cancer. Plant-based diets are healthier, reduce healthcare costs and reduce carbon emissions.

A note of caution

It’s important to remember that nature-based solutions aren’t a substitute for the rapid phase out of fossil fuels. They should involve a wide range of ecosystems on land and in the sea, not just forests. Wherever they’re implemented, nature-based solutions must proceed with the full engagement and consent of Indigenous peoples and local communities, respecting their cultural and ecological rights. And nature-based solutions should be explicitly designed to provide measurable benefits for biodiversity – not just carbon sequestration.

With all this in mind, the world can design robust and resilient solutions for the twin crises of climate change and biodiversity loss, sustaining nature and people together, now and into the future.

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About the authors:

Pete Smith currently receives research funding from UKRI, EU, Wellcome Trust and Scottish Government. He is on the science advisory team for Carbon Direct (https://carbon-direct.com/).

Mark Maslin is a Founding Director of Rezatec Ltd, Co-Director of The London NERC Doctoral Training Partnership, a member of Cheltenham Science Festival Advisory Committee and a member of the Climate Crisis Advisory Group. He is an unpaid member of the Sopra-Steria CSR Board and Sheep Included Ltd Advisory Board. He has received grant funding in the past from the NERC, EPSRC, ESRC, DFG, Royal Society, DIFD, BEIS, DECC, FCO, Innovate UK, Carbon Trust, UK Space Agency, European Space Agency, Research England, Wellcome Trust, Leverhulme Trust, The Children’s Investment Fund Foundation Sprint2020, and British Council. He has received research funding in the past from The Lancet, Laithwaites, Seventh Generation, Channel 4, JLT Re, WWF, Hermes, CAFOD, HP, and Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors.

Camille Parmesan does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

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What Did We Do?

Source of Inspiration

deforestation

Not even night
brings relief from the heat.
What have we done
when pools boil
in lands where
forests have been slain?

Climates gone haywire
ice caps melting
waves of water wash
life away, pollution the norm.
What have we done?

Across the globe, people
gather to find solutions
to the destruction greed
has caused. Join their voice
start the change wherever you live.
Plant a tree, save water
stop buying that which
contributes to the loss
of this earth’s resources.
Each of us can make a difference.

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The Forest

Though being 5 over 12 it is not too late to change our behaviour and to call a halt to the destructive power of man’s greed.

Source of Inspiration

sequoias

Is the forest filled
with trees of danger and despair
or a haven of birds
unicorns and devas?

Cut down the forest
sell the wood to the devil
who feeds on our greed and fear.
Clear the underbrush
wherein lurks temptation
prepare the land for
sand dunes of ruin.

Once our lands
were filled with mighty
forests home to beast and beauty
now asphalt heats
boiling putrid waters filled
with industrial wastes
people drowning in chemicals
and death, dwindling to a
trickle of despair.

Is it too late to change
how the story ends?
Too late to fill the land
with joyous song again?
No, but we must act now
to stop this tale of greed.
We must stand together
say, “no more!” then
act swiftly to save humanity.

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Looking at man’s closest friend

When we look at those who walk on the street we can find many more people who start looking like a lot of people from over the Atlantic Ocean.

Every October 24, thousands of events all around the United States of America bring Americans together to celebrate and enjoy real food and to push for improved food policies. On that day they have a ‘Food Day‘ which has to inspire Americans to change their diets and their food policies. Nutritionists generally recommend eating a wide variety of foods; however, some groups of people survive on a very limited diet whilst others think they need to eat as much as possible of all sorts of stuff.  The theme for 2016 was “Toward a Greener Diet.”

That Greener diet is something what lots of Europeans should be looking too and why they were afraid for the American trade agreements. But having heard the bad news Donald Trump becoming the president, Europeans will have less fear they have to come to accepting the genetically manipulated products and seeing TTIP not going through.

But back to the four legged friends. Today we want to present Bailey who is a basset who likes sustainability and his boss Hannah who is a writer who likes bassets.

Like for human beings we can see that their four-legged friends often also could use some specific allowance or selection of food, esp prescribed to control weight or in disorders in which certain foods are contraindicated.

As a dog, that basset may not have a whole lot of food options

–it’s dry, brown meat-flavored bits day in and day out (with the occasional apple slice or piece of dropped chicken thrown in there). {Jump on the Local-motive!}

Fritz (Marcus Ampe his Shetland Collie)

Fritz (Marcus Ampe his Shetland Collie)

My Shetland Collie (Fritz) also to be happy with his dry brown crackly little bits of three different brands (two per day, at night always the same brand) and around the end of year some extra special health food to calm him down for the fireworks

Sometimes we can see the look in our dogs face

Why not for me?

He looking jealous for us, human beings, having an endless choice of nice looking dishes and great smelling products.

We ourselves do keep to as much as possible natural products and not much meat or fish. Our dog receiving more meat, dried lamb and dried chicken with his dried vegetables, every day, and when, in the season, we eat some wild meat (wild boar, roe deer, deer and pheasant) he is happy to receive some ‘real’ pieces of cooked meat (a big treat).

Like we try to limit the ecological footprint Bailey’s boss is also aware of the urgent need to look at where we get our food from.

Living in Asheville

There are about 1,000 reasons to choose local food when you can (that’s 7,000 in dog reasons), but I’ve got some napping to do in this lovely autumn sunlight, so I’ll give just a few of them here. {Jump on the Local-motive!}

I wonder how Baily was settling in to watch the outcome of this presidential election which could some of the European tummies turn around. Though on their site it was noted

Something to ponder–why is it so many candidates don’t list their views on the environment? Is it that they don’t care? Is it that it’s not important enough to voters for them to feel the need to do it? {America! – Great debate} (I love the picture of the dog with the Gaelic ale by her article)

Baily who likes sustainability also loves apple slices, like my dog, and sleeping on the couch. But mostly he wants to talk to you about sustainability. So perhaps it is not bad those from far away would also give him an ear and listen how he’s going to tell all about different sustainability projects happening in his town – greenways, community gardens, eco-houses, all kinds of great stuff.

And with every post I’ll share an easy sustainability tip that you can do right away. {I’m Bailey…}

img_2880

Carnivore Bailey who can hardly preach vegetarianism, but wants to shed a light on his and the humans their way of eating and handling nature

Being a very health-conscious basset he is well aware of the average American diet which is contributing to obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and other health problems – problems that land them in the hospital and cost Americans more than $150 billion per year.

Now having a man coming to steer the nation, who himself is not one of the leanest, but wants to have the American products on the first line, he and we can wonder how he is going to tackle all the pollution, the emission of the US companies he want to stimulate their production.

That other ‘carnivore’ becoming president who does not like to listen to others perhaps also listens to Bailey who knows that

a meat-heavy diet takes a terrible toll on the environment.

On the basset’s wise site you can find that he/she has written

Cattle on a pasture in Germany

about before, large-scale agriculture has a huge carbon footprint, and livestock farming is particularly hard on the environment. Four-fifths of the deforestation across the Amazon rainforest (where some of my more exotic cousins like the capybara and the golden lion tamarin live) could be linked to cattle ranching. Factory farms where pigs and other livestock are kept in very tight quarters can produce as much sewage waste as a small city (that’s a lot of poop!). On those farms they use lots of antibiotics to keep the animals healthy, but using those antibiotics creates antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria – bad news for humans and bassets.{Happy Food Day!}

More than half of the Shetland catch by weight...

More than half of the Shetland catch by weight and value is Mackerel. Shetland Islands Council (2010) pp. 16-17 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

For the better or the worse, the Americans and the rest of the whole world shall have to face a new president of the United States of America, who made his money by not being conscious about the environment and not willing to have an eye for the welfare of humans let withstand animals, so curious how Bailey and other animals in that world which made their choice these last few hours, shall look at the next coming four years, though at his first speech after it was known he would be the next president he mentioned

“two, three of four years”

whilst others in the past spoke about

my first term

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Find Baily and his boss her voice at: SustainaBailey

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Preceding articles

How to make sustainable, green habits second nature

What would you do if…? Continued trial

Building a low-carbon world: the sixth industrial revolution

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Additional reading

  1. Ecological economics in the stomach #1 Alarmbell
  2. European Guidelines and Low Carbohydrate Diets for Diabetes
  3. Organic Food
  4. Royals, mini busses and environment
  5. Wolves left in the cold

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Further reading

  1. Education | Result of Seminar, Food Day
  2. For the Love of Food
  3. For the Love of Food
  4. At the Fall/Winter 2016 Table
  5. An Apple A Day
  6. Nine and ten, begin again!
  7. An Ecological Footprint in Context
  8. Making the regenerative city
  9. What China’s Monumental Move to Cut Meat Could Mean for the Future of our Planet
  10. A startling result
  11. Walk this way …
  12. How You Can Reduce Your Ecological Footprint
  13. Regulars Complain About Popular NYC Restaurant’s Plan To Go Vegan – Why The Owner Doesn’t Care
  14. Food Technology That May Save The Planet: Plant Based Protein
  15. Don’t Want To Be A Vegan? Make One Change… Veggie Burgers
  16. Footprint Calculator – Global Footprint Network
  17. Help Save 45,000 Wild Horses From Being Killed
  18. Homemade = Less Money & Less Waste
  19. Environmentalist on a Budget
  20. A Step in the Right Direction: OTF “How Big is your Ecological Footprint?” Lesson Plan Review
  21. If Everyone Lived in an ‘Ecovillage’, the Earth Would Still Be in Trouble
  22. US Elections November 2016
  23. Is This Real Life?
  24. Donald Trump Crashes Hillary Clinton’s Presidential Dream After Historic Election Victory
  25. What have children learnt from the US election?
  26. Trump: Europe’s nightmare? Maybe we should take a breather.
  27. What Trump’s win means for the rest of the world
  28. How we can respond positively to the result of the Presidential election

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