Tag Archives: Ancient Egypt

The Exodus Story: History or Myth?

A biblical scholar reviews the historical claims of the biblical book of Exodus.

The Book of Genesis ends with the story of Jacob going down to Egypt with his family. The first chapter of Exodus tells how the 70 members of Jacob’s s clan evolved into a large people, cruelly enslaved by the kings of Egypt. The enslavement is presented in the Bible as a crucible that forged the nation of Israel. Oppressed for several centuries, the Hebrews suffered until Moses, of the tribe of Levi, brought up in Pharaoh’s household, led them to freedom in the name of God, an omnipotent deity unknown to the Hebrews prior to their liberation.

The Exodus Narrative

File:Karolingischer Buchmaler um 840 002.jpg

Moses empfängt die Gesetzestafeln – Karolingischer Buchmaler

The story of the Exodus is related in a few dramatic chapters: 600,000 men left Egypt on a long trek to freedom. God punished their enemies (the ten plagues of Egypt), drowned Pharaoh’s army with its chariots and cavalry in the Red Sea, and brought them to Mount Sinai where they witnessed the revelation and received the DecalogueGod’s commandments to his people.

The First Commandment is the essence of Jewish monotheism:

“I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me” (Exodus, 20:2‑3).

By the time they reached the frontiers of Canaan after forty years in the desert, the Israelites had become a strong, united nation, and were ready to conquer the Promised Land.

Is Exodus History?

The historical validity of this narrative is controversial. Some scholars stress the lack of Egyptian evidence testifying to the enslavement of the Israelites, pointing out that very little Egyptian influence is discernible in biblical literature and in ancient Hebrew culture. Other scholars, how­ever, claim that it is highly improbable that a nation would choose to invent for itself a history of slavery as an explanation of its origins. If such a tradition exists, it must reflect an historical truth.

Were the Israelites Slaves?

Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.

Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.

There is no doubt that slavery played a major role in the structure of the Egyptian state. It is also true that some form of single‑god worship was introduced into Egypt by Akenaton in the middle of the fourteenth century B.C.E., and this may have been a source for Jewish monotheism. Finally, the reign of Ramses II (1290-1212 B.C.E.), known for its costly wars and vast building enterprises, may well have been the era of cruel oppression described in Exodus.

But the only contemporary Egyptian source which actually mentions Israel is the stela (pillar with inscription) of King Merneptah from the fifth year of his reign (1207 B.C.E.), recording among his many victories:

“Carved off is Ashkelon, seized upon in Gezer…Israel is laid waste, his seed no more.”

This inscription implies that an entity named Israel existed in Canaan at the time, yet it is difficult to determine precisely what it was. One thing, however, may be regarded as certain: if the Israelites indeed emerged out of Egypt, their migration took place before the end of the 13th century B.C.E.

Explaining the Passover Miracles

This single fact, however, does not resolve the enigma. Obviously, the orthodox tradition accepts the biblical account literally, despite all the miracles it describes. There are scholars who seek to explain the miraculous events in rational and natural terms. They refer to ancient disasters which befell Egypt – floods, drought, slave rebellions, and invasions. Could these not be the ten plagues of Egypt? And the drown­ing of Pharaoh’s army in the Red Sea – can it not be explained by the ebb ­and flow of the marshes between the Nile and the Sinai Desert?

Problems and Contradictions in Exodus

Ipuwer Papyrus (officially Papyrus Leiden I 344 recto) – often put forward in popular literature as confirmation of the Biblical account, most notably because of its statement that “the river is blood” and its frequent references to servants running away, but these arguments ignore the many points on which Ipuwer contradicts Exodus, such as the fact that its Asiatics are arriving in Egypt rather than leaving, and the likelihood that the “river is blood” phrase may refer to the red sediment colouring the Nile during disastrous floods, or may simply be a poetic image of turmoil.

Other scholars, however, totally reject the historical validity of Exodus. The story of Ipu‑wer, they say, describes the anarchy in Egypt at the end of the third millennium B.C.E. and has no bearing on the biblical story; and 600,000 men (“not counting dependents”) means that approximately two million Hebrews left Egypt– is it possible that such a vast emigration left no trace in Egyptian sources? The biblical narrative, they point out, is full contradictions concerning the topography and the sequence of events – a feature typical of folktales, not of historical texts.

Intermediate Theories about Exodus

Between the two opposing views there are several intermediary theories. One hypothesis is that the Israelites left Egypt in two waves, and that by the time the second wave departed – in the middle of the thirteenth century – the first group had already settled in the land of Canaan, mostly around the town of Shechem in Samaria. Another possibility is that there was no organized mass emigration, but rather a constant flow of thousands of people from different Semitic tribes who left Egypt, roamed the desert, slowly infiltrating the land of Canaan where they eventually formed a single nation.

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Preceding articles

Adar 6, Matan Torah remembering the giving of Torah

The smaller the miracle the greater the wonder

Commemorating the escape from slavery

Days of Nisan, Pesach, Pasach, Pascha and Easter

The Best Bedtime Stories

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Additional reading

  1. Today’s thought “God spoke all these words” (February 15)
  2. Today’s thought “Ability to see that God is not dead” (May 12)
  3. 14 Nisan a day to remember #5 The Day to celebrate
  4. Most important weekend of the year 2016
  5. 1,500 to 1,700 years old Chiselled tablet with commandments sold at auction

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Related

  1. Reading the Jacob story as a prequel
  2. Out of Egypt
  3. Passover celebrates freedom to worship
  4. A Seder Supplement for Passover 5778: “The 10 Sacred Acts of Liberation”
  5. 10 Things You Should Know About the Exodus
  6. Exodus 14: Making Pharaoh Obstinate
  7. The Book of Exodus, Chapter 34
  8. The Book of Exodus, Chapter 35
  9. #36 – The Ten Commandments [Part 2] (Exodus 20b)
  10. The Leaven of Bitterness
  11. Not So Polite Dinner Conversation – Exodus redux

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Filed under History, Religious affairs

On the Edge of Believing

14 Nisan coming closer we look at the people liberated from enslavement by the ancient Egyptians but also for the liberation of Jews and goims or gentiles.

Crossing of the red sea

Crossing of the red sea (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The people of God got freedom after they had witnesses several plagues coming over Egypt. The land was on the verge of going in a disastrous killing situation.  You would think after having seen all the remarkable plagues, the wonder of crossing the Red Sea, they would fully trust the Most High Elohim  יהוה  {Jehovah}. they were guided and could find themselves camping beside Mount Sinai witnessing the earth quaking, the clouds, the fire and the voice from the mountain! After that, the miraculous provision of manna, quails, and water from the rock could still not bring many to go for the worshipping of the Only One True God and letting them still having doubts about so many matters. It fortuned, the first day of the eleventh month in the fortieth year, that Moses spoke unto the children of Israel according unto all that the Divine Creator had given him in commandment unto them. God telling them that they had dwelt long enough in this mount and therefore could depart and take their journey going unto the hills of the Amorites and unto all places nigh thereunto, both fields, hills and dales: and unto the south and unto the sea’s side in the land of Canaan, and unto Lebanon: even unto the great river Euphrates.

Deu 1:3-4 The Scriptures 1998+  (3)  And it came to be in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Mosheh spoke to the children of Yisra’ĕl according to all that יהוה  {Jehovah} had commanded him concerning them,  (4)  after he had smitten Siḥon sovereign of the Amorites, who dwelt in Ḥeshbon, and Oḡ   sovereign of Bashan, who dwelt at Ashtaroth in Eḏreʽi.

They had to know and to believe that God had set them the land before them and that no matter what would happen they should trust God going in to possess the land which Jehovah swore unto their fathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, to give unto them and their seed after them.

Deu 1:8 The Scriptures 1998+  (8)  ‘See, I have set the land before you. Go in and possess the land which יהוה  {Jehovah} swore to your fathers, to Aḇraham, to Yitsḥaq, and to Yaʽaqoḇ, to give to them and their seed after them.’

Instead of trust we see that the Israelites have so much fear that they doubt that the road would be safe for them.

English: "Destruction of the Army of the ...

“Destruction of the Army of the Amorites” by Gustave Doré. Jos 10:11 … the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died: they were more which died with hailstones and than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Deu 1:20-40 The Scriptures 1998+  (20)  “And I said to you, ‘You have come to the mountains of the Amorites, which יהוה  {Jehovah} our Elohim is giving us.  (21)  ‘See, יהוה  {Jehovah} your Elohim has set the land before you. Go up and possess it, as יהוה  {Jehovah} Elohim of your fathers has spoken to you. Do not fear, nor be discouraged.’  (22)  “And all of you came near to me and said, ‘Let us send men before us, and let them search out the land for us, and bring back word to us of the way by which we should go up, and of the cities into which we would come.’  (23)  “And the matter was good in my eyes, so I took twelve of your men, one man from each tribe.  (24)  “And they turned and went up into the mountains, and came to the wadi Eshkol, and spied it out.  (25)  “And they took some of the fruit of the land in their hands and brought it down to us. And they brought back word to us, saying, ‘The land which יהוה  {Jehovah} our Elohim is giving us is good.’  (26)  “But you would not go up and rebelled against the mouth of יהוה  {Jehovah} your Elohim,  (27)  and grumbled in your tents, and said, ‘Because יהוה  {Jehovah} was hating us, He has brought us out of the land of Mitsrayim to give us into the hand of the Amorites, to destroy us.  (28)  ‘Where are we going to? Our brothers have made our hearts melt, saying, “The people are greater and taller than we, the cities are great and walled up to the heavens, and we saw the sons of the Anaqim there too.” ’  (29)  “Then I said to you, ‘Have no dread or fear of them.  (30)  ‘יהוה  {Jehovah} your Elohim, who is going before you, He does fight for you, according to all He did for you in Mitsrayim before your eyes,  (31)  and in the wilderness, where you saw how יהוה  {Jehovah} your Elohim has borne you, as a man bears his son, in all the way that you went until you came to this place.’  (32)  “Yet in this matter you are putting no trust in יהוה  {Jehovah} your Elohim,  (33)  who is going before you in the way to seek out a place for you to pitch your tents, to show you the way you should go, in fire by night and in a cloud by day.  (34)  “And יהוה  {Jehovah} heard the voice of your words, and was wroth, and took an oath, saying,  (35)  ‘Not one of these men of this evil generation shall see that good land of which I swore to give to your fathers,  (36)  except Kalĕb son of Yephunneh. He shall see it, and to him and his children I give the land on which he walked, because he followed יהוה  {Jehovah} completely.’  (37)  “And יהוה  {Jehovah} was enraged with me for your sakes, saying, ‘You do not go in there, either.  (38)  ‘Yehoshua the son of Nun, who stands before you, he shall go in there. Strengthen him, for he shall cause Yisra’ĕl to inherit.  (39)  ‘And your little ones and your children, who you say are for a prey, who today have no knowledge of good and evil, they are going in there. And to them I give it, and they are to possess it.  (40)  ‘But you, turn and take your journey into the wilderness by the Way of the Sea of Reeds.’

We see that it were the Israelites who requested a look-see at what was ahead. God had made it possible for His people to go away from slavery and to go to a new land which they could call their own. Though now we see that their mind was not yet open enough for the mind of God and not trusting enough in the capabilities of the Most High Sovereign. Instead of believing God they once more doubted the possibilities laid in front of them. God had led them with a pillar of cloud and a pillar of fire. He had gotten them through the Red Sea in a most spectacular way.  He had fed them with manna and quails and had provided them with water from a rock. Still they were not yet convinced of the Mighty Power of God. No wonder we can see how difficult it is for people today who cannot see those wonders of the Most High.

We do agree that it must not have been easy to walk day in day out for 40 years, but they knew it was their own fault. After all the walking and time enough for meditation you would think they would now have come to the faith and belief everything God promised them. Though still they were not all convinced and many let them be carried away by those who did not believe. The ones who continued to carry their fear, showing lack of trust and discontent, infected the others.

Fear had to be counter-balanced with trust and believing. God let them send spies, like they requested, and the results of their thinking and readiness was exposed.

Num 13:1-3 The Scriptures 1998+  (1)  And  יהוה  {Jehovah} spoke to Mosheh, saying,  (2)  “Send men to spy out the land of Kenaʽan, which I am giving to the children of Yisra’ĕl. Send one man from each tribe of their fathers, every one a leader among them.”  (3)  And by the command of  יהוה  {Jehovah} Mosheh sent them from the Wilderness of Paran, all of them men who were heads of the children of Yisra’ĕl.

Num 13:30-33 The Scriptures 1998+  (30)  And Kalĕb silenced the people before Mosheh, and said, “Let us go up at once and take possession, for we are certainly able to overcome it.”  (31)  But the men who had gone up with him said, “We are not able to go up against the people, for they are stronger than we.”  (32)  And they gave the children of Yisra’ĕl an evil report of the land which they had spied out, saying, “The land through which we have gone as spies is a land eating up its inhabitants, and all the people whom we saw in it are men of great size.  (33)  “And we saw there the Nephilim, sons of Anaq, of the Nephilim. And we were like grasshoppers in our own eyes, and so we were in their eyes.”

Again the Israelites thought the others were stronger than they and did not believe God would be helping them to conquer them. Afraid of those who looked like giants, the children of Anak which are of the giants. And they seemed in their sight as it were grasshoppers. Although 10 of the 12 spies sent to explore the land had come back, found and said the land was flowing with milk and honey they had such a negative frame of mind.

The encouragement of two of the 12 could not convince the group to go out because the fear of the other ten spies and their influence on the Israelites was bigger. Again the people of God found themselves on the edge of the abyss it seemed. Then Moses and Aaron fell on their faces before all the assembly of the congregation of the people of Israel. Joshua the son of Nun and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, who were among those who had spied out the land, tore their clothes and said to all the congregation of the people of Israel that the land, which they passed through to spy it out, was an exceedingly good land. But this could not help against the rebellion.
They kept fearing the people of the land who lost protection from them God being with the Israelites who as such had nothing to fear.

Num 14:10-38 The Scriptures 1998+  (10)  But all the congregation said to stone them with stones. Then the esteem of יהוה  {Jehovah} appeared in the Tent of Meeting before all the children of Yisra’ĕl.  (11)  And יהוה  {Jehovah} said to Mosheh, “How long shall I be scorned by these people? And how long shall I not be trusted by them, with all the signs which I have done in their midst?  (12)  “Let Me smite them with the pestilence and disinherit them, and make of you a nation greater and mightier than they.”  (13)  And Mosheh said to יהוה  {Jehovah}, “Then the Mitsrites shall hear it, for by Your power You brought these people up from their midst,  (14)  and they shall say to the inhabitants of this land they have heard that You, יהוה  {Jehovah}, are in the midst of these people, that You, יהוה  {Jehovah}, are seen eye to eye and that Your cloud stands above them, and You go before them in a column of cloud by day and in a column of fire by night.  (15)  “Now if You shall kill these people as one man, then the nations which have heard of Your report shall speak, saying,  (16)  ‘Because יהוה  {Jehovah} was not able to bring this people to the land which He swore to give them, therefore He killed them in the wilderness.’  (17)  “And now, I pray, let the power of יהוה  {Jehovah} be great, as You have spoken, saying,  (18)  ‘יהוה  {Jehovah} is patient and of great kindness, forgiving crookedness and transgression, but by no means leaving unpunished1; visiting the crookedness of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generation.’ Footnote: 1This is confirmed in Ex. 34:7 and in Jer. 30:11.  (19)  “Please forgive the crookedness of this people, according to the greatness of Your kindness, as You have forgiven this people, from Mitsrayim even until now.”  (20)  And יהוה  {Jehovah} said, “I shall forgive, according to your word,  (21)  but truly, as I live and all the earth is filled with the esteem of יהוה  {Jehovah},  (22)  for none of these men who have seen My esteem and the signs which I did in Mitsrayim and in the wilderness, and have tried Me now these ten times, and have disobeyed My voice,  (23)  shall see the land of which I swore to their fathers, nor any of those who scorned Me see it.  (24)  “But My servant Kalĕb, because he has a different spirit in him and has followed Me completely, I shall bring into the land where he went, and his seed shall inherit it.  (25)  “Since the Amalĕqites and the Kenaʽanites are dwelling in the valley, turn back tomorrow and set out into the wilderness by the Way of the Sea of Reeds.”  (26)  And יהוה  {Jehovah} spoke to Mosheh, and to Aharon, saying,  (27)  “How long shall this evil congregation have this grumbling against Me? I have heard the grumblings which the children of Yisra’ĕl are grumbling against Me.  (28)  “Say to them, ‘As I live,’ declares יהוה  {Jehovah}, ‘as you have spoken in My hearing, so I do to you:  (29)  ‘The carcasses of you who have grumbled against Me are going to fall in this wilderness, all of you who were registered, according to your entire number, from twenty years old and above.  (30)  ‘None of you except Kalĕḇ son of Yephunneh, and Yehoshua son of Nun, shall enter the land which I swore I would make you dwell in.  (31)  ‘But your little ones, whom you said would become a prey, I shall bring in, and they shall know the land which you have rejected.  (32)  ‘But as for you, your carcasses are going to fall in this wilderness.  (33)  ‘And your sons shall be wanderers in the wilderness forty years, and shall bear your whorings, until your carcasses are consumed in the wilderness.  (34)  ‘According to the number of the days in which you spied out the land, forty days – a day for a year, a day for a year – you are to bear your crookednesses forty years, and you shall know My breaking off.  (35)  ‘I am יהוה  {Jehovah}, I have spoken, I shall do this to all this evil congregation who are meeting against Me: In this wilderness they are consumed, and there they die.’ ”  (36)  And the men whom Mosheh sent to spy out the land, who returned and made all the congregation grumble against him by bringing an evil report of the land,  (37)  even those men who brought the evil report about the land, died by the plague before יהוה  {Jehovah}.  (38)  Of those men who went to spy out the land, only Yehoshua son of Nun, and Kalĕḇ son of Yephunneh remained alive.

Their hesitation and disbelief did not help them to go further instead, this time, it angered God. Their fear caused them to wander and procrastinate and eventually kept them from what God wanted for them. They did it to themselves.

We should take such story as a lesson also for us. How much do we want to trust God? How much do we follow the path God has laid in front of us?

Caleb, the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite, later could tell he was forty years old when Moses the servant of Jehovah sent him from Kadesh-barnea to spy out the land. Though he brought Moses word again as it was in his heart, his brothers who went up with him made the heart of the people melt. Because Caleb kept faithful to God, fully following Jehovah his God, Jehovah has kept him alive these forty-five years as He said, even since Jehovah spoke this word to Moses, while Israel wandered in the wilderness. This made Caleb being able to become eighty-five years whilst others had died already.

Jos 14:6-10 The Scriptures 1998+  (6)  And the children of Yehuḏah came to Yehoshua in Gilgal, and Kalĕb son of Yephunneh the Kenizzite said to him, “You know the word which יהוה  {Jehovah} said to Mosheh the man of Elohim concerning you and me in Qad??sh Barn?a.  (7)  “I was forty years old when Mosheh the servant of יהוה  {Jehovah} sent me from Qaḏĕsh Barnĕa to spy out the land, and I brought back word to him as it was in my heart.  (8)  “But my brothers who went up with me made the heart of the people melt, but I followed יהוה  {Jehovah} my Elohim completely.  (9)  “So Mosheh swore on that day, saying, ‘The land on which your foot has trodden is your inheritance and your children’s forever, because you have followed יהוה  {Jehovah} my Elohim completely.’  (10)  “And now, see, יהוה  {Jehovah} has kept me alive, as He said, these forty-five years since יהוה  {Jehovah} spoke this word to Mosheh while Yisra’ĕl walked in the wilderness. And now, see, I am eighty-five years old today.

The People of God who had received many proofs that God was with them still were not trusting God enough. Like for them you can say the edge of believing is always in front of us. From the fall onwards man got fear. Suddenly they were afraid to being naked and been seen by others. From then onwards fear stayed with man as a natural human emotion.

We should now that above fear there is the security of knowing. There is wisdom and healthy respect which shall be to our are benefit. Though we should be well aware that the danger is always looking around the corner. The adversary of God is always standing ready to bring us in doubt and to give us fear. This fear can shut us down when we don’t take it to God. We should be so convinced that we do not have to fear God by coming to Him with our doubts and questions. With all what we have in Scriptures we should know that we can trust Him. Jehovah is absolutely approachable with honest prayer and provides several means of reassurance. He also has given His only begotten son to be a mediator between God and man. In him too we should trust, that he can talk in our name with his heavenly Father and be our guide in distress.

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Please do find to read further:

Like grasshoppers

Believing in God the Rewarder

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Additional reading:

  1. Challenging claim 4 Inspired by God 3 Self-consistent Word of God
  2. God Our Refuge
  3. Actions to be a reflection of openness of heart

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  • Bulletin Articles: “The Wise Joshua Did Not Know the Source of the Problem” & “A Sword through Your Soul” (grantspasschurchofchrist.com)
    Joshua said connected the name of Israel with the name of God, and if Israel suffered defeat, that would dishonor the name of God.

    God then revealed to Joshua the problem, and he fixed it immediately, then Israel went back to winning their battles.

  • The Ages, are cycles within still other cycles and mankind would do well to note this. (onthehillgilayjun.blogspot.com)
    For each Soul has free will to choose to move into their lower base nature and become a partaker in the destruction of Creation even if it is through ignorance.
  • Learning to Stand Still (christianmotivations.weebly.com)
    If the Israelites had attempted to cross the Red Sea before it parted, they would have drowned. If they had fled north to try to avoid the Egyptians, God would not have moved in a miraculous way. God cannot work on our behalf if we continually try to solve our problem when He has instructed us to stand still. Standing still is sometimes the greatest action we can do, although it is the most difficult thing to do in the Christian walk.
  • 23.5 Moses 23, Day 5 (thenotesaregood.com)
    Unlike the King of Moab who rallied his troops in a defensive position to protect their land from their fear of trespassing Jews, Sihon brought out his army to attack – to vainly oppose both the people of God and God Himself.
  • A Little Man Attacking God (between2citiesblog.wordpress.com)
    The Israelites were running for their lives from the Egyptians who were led by the most powerful human king in all the ancient middle east (Pharoah). He was not only perceived to be the most powerful king, but was actually thought to be a god. SO when the people of Israel saw their God opening up the waters for them to pass, and then the Pharaoh chasing them down, this would have looked a lot like the battle of the gods. But, instead of feeling like audience members at a WWE pay-per-view, the Israelites were terrified.
  • Red See (snopes.com)
    On 24 October 2014, the web site World News Daily Report (WNDR) published an article claiming that chariot wheels and the bones of horses and men had been discovered at the bottom of the Red Sea, thereby supposedly proving archaeological proof of the Biblical narrative about the escape of the Israelites from the Egyptians. (According to the Book of Exodus, God parted the Red Sea long enough for the Moses-led Israelites to walk across it on dry ground, but closed the waters up again upon the pursuing Egyptian army and drowned them all.)
  • Exodus 19:10-11 – And the Lord said to Moses, “Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow. (church4u2.wordpress.com)
    There is a great need in this season for God’s people to be come into renewal and effectiveness in their faith. The Bible tells us that renewal comes when we are consecrated, or set apart, for the LORD. There is a season to be relevant to the culture around us, and there is a season to stand out. Church history tells us that setting ourselves apart for prayer and self denial can bring us into renewal.
  • Scripture for when you need a promise (notconsumed.com)
    I’m much like those Israelites…clinging to the slavery of what is known (no matter what the cost) and forgetting the promises of my loving and merciful Savior. In the waves of the storm, I can’t see all that God has promised and I long for what was before.
  • God Called Moses The Exodus Story Continues (Part 4 Of 5) (vineandbranchworldministries.com)
    Moses stretched out his hand to the skies. Thick darkness descended on the land of Egypt for three days. Nobody could see anybody. For three days no one could so much as move. Except for the Israelites; they had light where they were living.
  • Kee Teesa: Aaron as Substitute Teacher (blogs.timesofisrael.com)
    Why did the Israelites build the Golden Calf? Barely three months had passed since God freed Israel from slavery, in the course of which they beheld the most extraordinary miracles and wonders: the Ten Plagues, the Splitting of the Reed Sea, and now the thunderous, magnificent descent of God onto Mt. Sinai, certainly not the most awesome of mountains.

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Filed under Being and Feeling, Lifestyle, Religious affairs, Spiritual affairs

Days of Nisan, Pesach, Pasach, Pascha and Easter

End of Winter, new beginning

When Winter let us see its last breath 1st Nisan brings a New Year.
At the appearance of the first “new moon” of Spring, that is, when the waxing crescent of the moon is first sighted we come to celebrate the Biblical New Years Day.

After the dark months we look forward to a time of more light. We are also confronted with what happened many thousand years ago. There was an event in history which was going to influence the coarse of history up to today. In Egypt a people felt restricted and threatened by how they where treated. Nisan brings the start of their big journey. It is the start of the month of the Exodus from Egypt and the beginning of Jewish national history. It is also the first month used for counting the festivals (mo’edim) of the Hebrew Calendar and for reckoning the years of reign of the Kings of Israel.

Head of the months

English: Israel's Escape from Egypt, illustrat...

Israel’s Escape from Egypt, illustration from a Bible card published 1907 by the Providence Lithograph Company (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Rosh Chodashim (ראשׁ חֳדָשִׁים), “the head of the months,” and its observance is considered the very first commandment given to Israel before the great Exodus from Egypt took place. For the world now got days they should remember for ever.

“This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.” (Exodus 12:2 ASV)

“3 And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand Jehovah brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten. 4 This day ye go forth in the month Abib.” (Exodus 13:3-4 ASV)

“The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep: seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed in the month Abib (for in it thou camest out from Egypt); and none shall appear before me empty:” (Exodus 23:15 ASV)

“The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed in the month Abib; for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.” (Exodus 34:18 ASV)

“Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto Jehovah thy God; for in the month of Abib Jehovah thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.” (Deuteronomy 16:1 ASV)

Commemorating miracles the Creator performed

Creation in itself is already something special about many people may have many theories. Still people are not sure how everything came into existence. They still continue to have many debates about how the world came into existence. By wondering and concentrating on the theories of man they do not see the first miracle nor the other miracles God did in this universe which still hides a lot for our small eyes.

The Ramban (Nachmanides) wrote:

“By counting every month from Nisan, we constantly commemorate the miracle that God performed when He took us out of slavery.”

Month for the Redeemed

Since the redemption from Egypt took place during the month of Nisan you also could call it

“the month of the redemption.” [Chodesh HaGeulah (חדֶשׁ הַגְּאֻלָּה)]

The Babylonian Talmud (Tractate Rosh Hashanah 11a) states:

“In Nisan our forefathers were redeemed from Egypt and in Nisan we will be redeemed.”

Not only for Jews it is an important month; Also for Christians it should be the most important month of the year. It should be a period where we remember how the Divine Creator has chosen Him a people, Israel, the Jews. But also because it is the month of the New Creation. The God of gods not only in that month took care that His own people got liberated from the slavery in Egypt. Many years later God also took care that all people got liberated from a bigger and worse slavery, namely the slavery of sin. Therefore not only for the Jews, also for Christians and Muslims, but also for those who do not (yet) believe in the True God, Nisan is also Chodesh ha-Yeshuah (חדֶשׁ הַיְשׁוּעָה), the “month of the salvation,” both in terms of the physical deliverance from Egypt, but more profoundly in terms of the spiritual salvation given at Zion/Moriah through the Messiah.  The Month of Jeshua has brought a change for the whole world, Jews and gentiles or to believers and non-believers or non-religious.

When you take Nisan to come from nissim (נִסִּים, “miracles”) or from the word nitzan (נִצָּן, “bud”) we got presented the greatest miracles in humankind.

Coming into new life

When the flowers are come on the earth; the time of cutting the vines is come, and the voice of the dove is sounding in our land, when the fruit-trees put out their green fruit and the vines with their young fruit give a good smell, we should get up and go into the world bringing the Good News of Salvation. (Song of Solomon 2:12-13) We should be thankful that the Creator not only redeemed His own people but also gave a solution for the sin of us all.

The 1st of Nisan is counted as the new year for the purpose of counting the reign of kings of Israel (in Exodus 12:2, the word lakhem (לָכֶם), “to you,” can be rearranged to form the word melekh (מֶלֶךְ), “a king.”). For instance, if a king ascended the throne just a week before the new moon of Nisan, that week would be reckoned as a year in the chronicles of Israel’s kings.

Last king and High-priest assigned to the throne

On the 14th of Nisan, about 1985 years ago a new and the last king for God was put next to the throne of God. A Jewish man from the lineage of king David was chosen to become the major High Priest in the Temple of God and to be the mediator between God and man, sitting at the right hand of God.

“55 But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up stedfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, 56 and said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God.” (Acts 7:55-56 ASV)

Jesus from Nazareth was the man God called “his only begotten beloved son“. He was the chosen one, the one God had already spoken of in the Garden of Eden. As such God His Word, His promise made in the Garden of Eden, had become flesh in 4BCE. When this son of man who was also called son of David and son of God, became 12 years of age he went already in the temple to talk about his heavenly Father. When he was thirty he got baptised by John the Baptist, after which God declared in front of many at the river Jordan, that the man standing there in the water was ‘his beloved son“.

“16 And Jesus when he was baptized, went up straightway from the water: and lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming upon him; 17 and lo, a voice out of the heavens, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” (Matthew 3:16-17 ASV)

For those who would have doubted God repeated His saying:

“33 And it came to pass, as they were parting from him, Peter said unto Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah: not knowing what he said. 34 And while he said these things, there came a cloud, and overshadowed them: and they feared as they entered into the cloud. 35 And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my Son, my chosen: hear ye him. 36 And when the voice came, Jesus was found alone. And they held their peace, and told no man in those days any of the things which they had seen.” (Luke 9:33-36 ASV)

After the man had died God provided a Comforter, Who gave Jesus his disciples the courage to go out in the world and to tell about the miracles that man had done and of what importance that man was and did works in the name of his Father, the Holy Righteous One God, the Elohim Hashem Jehovah.

Day of breaking the bread

Deutsch: Brot- und Backwaren

Bread to be broken as a symbol (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

On the 14th of Nisan they had seen that man taking bread and wine, presenting them as if it was his own body, saying it was given to them and the world for their sins, and the action of that coming together and “Breaking of the Bread” they had to repeat until he would come back.

According to Jewish tradition the month of Nisan is also assigned to the royal tribe of Judah (יְהוּדָה), in whose merit both the Holy Temple was built and from whom the Messiah Jeshua (Jesus Christ) would descend. When we look at the name Judah (יְהוּדָה) we can see that it includes the Name YHVH or YHWH (יהוה) {Jehovha} with the insertion of the letter Dalet (ד), suggesting that Judah would be the “door” or “gate” into the presence of God. This Only One God had kept His promise made in the Garden of Eden. His Word had become flesh. (John 1:1) The man of flesh, blood and bones had only done the Will of his Father (and not his own will) and was killed for it and for being an nuisance for the leaders at that time.  They could not bear it that this man dared to say he was doing all this miracles in the name of his heavenly Father. If he would told the people he was doing it himself they would perhaps not have bothered so much, but now he called to God for what he did. That was considered blasphemy and therefore he had to be killed.

A preparation for salvation by the full ransom

After Jesus had let his disciples prepare for 15 Nisan, the Passover he on the 14th of Nisan enjoyed his last supper on the 14th of Nisan and asked his disciples to remember that day. All followers of Christ therefore should remember that special day when Jesus installed the New Covenant. The same day he was taken prisoner and impaled to find his death. He was put in a grave and according to the Holy Scriptures was three day under the dead, being in sheol or gehenna (the hell) or what we commonly call the grave. {Those who call the hell a place of torture should wonder why Jesus had to be in it for three days.}

Door Knob

The Door to find and to open

Jeshua or Jesus Christ was from the tribe of Judah and had spoken many times of his Father and about his role in this world-system.  He also knew we all have to live in this world, but warned us not to be of this world and to look at him to get to know his Father and to see the light leading up to the gate of the Kingdom of God. Many times Jesus described himself as ha-sha’ar (הַשַּׁעַר) “the gate”(John 10:9). The arrangement of the tribes placed Judah directly in front of the door into the Mishkan (Numery 2:3).

Celebrations and the Day after

English: "Christ risen from His tomb"...

“Christ risen from His tomb”, fresco ; cathedral of Spoleto, Italy; (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

These days when so many have celebrations being it for Passover or being it called Easter, they should see the first New Year which marks the month of the redemption of the Jewish people see the redemption Jeshua brought when he was sacrificed upon the wooden stake at Moriah to redeem us from our sins. The second marks the month of Israels’ corporate salvation that will be fulfilled in the End of Days.  Oddly enough for most Christians, “New Years Day” should be really celebrated in the spring, certainly not in “January.

After three days in the grave, something incredible happened. It goes beyond any human conception. Though we should grasp a clear understanding of the event. Because of the Passover celebration the loved ones of Christ had no time to properly prepare the body for burial with spices and ointments according to Jewish customs. No work could be done on the Holy Sabbath of Sabbaths, so that task had to wait until the day after.

When in the morning, Mary Magdalene and several other women went to the tomb with the spices they had prepared and arrived at the sealed tomb, guarded by Roman soldiers, so that nobody could do something with the body of that rebel Jesus, they found the tomb had been opened and nobody around the tomb. When they went in, they did not find Jesus’ body, and they wondered what had happened.

Suddenly, two angels in dazzling white clothes were there. The women were terrified, but the angels said to them,

“Why do you look for the living among the dead? He is not here; He has risen! Remember how He told you that He would be turned over to sinful men, be crucified, and rise again on the third day!”

The women ran back to tell Jesus’ apostles what they had seen. Peter and one other apostle went to the tomb to see for themselves. They looked in and saw the linen cloths that Jesus’ body had been wrapped in but nothing else. Then they went home, amazed and confused.

Not stolen, not mislaid

The Risen Christ

The Risen Christ, the one who showed his wounds to proof he was not a ghost or spirit (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

You can imagine how terrified they must have been. Who had stolen the body of their most beloved rabbi (master teacher)?

When Peter and the other apostle went home, Mary Magdalene stayed outside the tomb crying. Suddenly she saw Jesus standing there, but she did not recognize him at first. Jesus said to her:

“Woman, why are you crying? Who are you looking for?”

Mary thought He must be the gardener and said:

“Sir, if you have taken him away, tell me where, and I will take him!”

Can you imagine what would have gone through this lady when Jesus said, “Mary!” and she then recognized him and exclaimed, “Master!”?

All the disciples like Mary Magdalene knew Jesus was the son of God, who had done everything for his Father and who had spoken of the possibility of people going to the reign of his Father, him being there. But Jesus affirmed her that he was not yet by his Father in heaven. It is not by dying that something would go up into heaven or hell. Like every human being, plant or animal, Jesus died and we will die. Normally once death, all thinking and handling will be finished. We shall not be able to do anything any more. Mary Magdalene was aware of the dead not being able to do anything, but now she got to see Jesus. Also others, later, got to see Jesus. To them he also proofed he was not a ghost or a spirit, like his Father is a Spirit. He was a man of flesh and blood who showed his wounds to proof that it was him they were seeing know, after he had died. Incomprehensible!

Not yet in heaven, Still to ascend

Jesus said:

“Don’t hold on to me, because I have not yet returned to the Father. But go to my disciples and tell them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.'”

Then Mary Magdalene went and said to the disciples

“I have seen the lord!”

and she told them everything that had happened.

Many could not believe what had happened. Several got to see Christ Jesus, and saw that he was really risen. They could see and believe.
We can not see that Jesus is rise. For us it is more difficult to believe, because there are no witnesses alive any more. We have to go on the books, the stories told. Most of all we have to go on our faith were we believe what has been told in the Old Books of the Old Testament, where the promises of God are told to all who want to know. In those books are also the signs given to recognise the promised Messiah. Putting everything together, we should have no doubt who the Messiah is and what God has done with him and for us.

Tool to get out of the slavery of sin and its curse, the death

Having the month where God helped His chosen people to get out of slavery by man, we also have the month where God gave mankind a tool to get out of the slavery of sin and its curse, the death. As such this is the Month of Hope and the Month of Salvation.

Instead of being wondering which presents or gifts we should buy for Easter, we should use Easter time to remember the Exodus form Egypt , the Last Supper, Jesus installing the New Covenant, Jesus being impaled for the sins of the world, and Jesus taken out of the dead by his heavenly Father. A resurrection bringing us hope, because in it, we can see what shall be able to happen to us in the future, after Jesus has returned.

All more the reason to look out for the return of Christ and to put our hopes in that man who was the beloved son of God. We should trust in him and his Father and follow his teachings, being thankful for the restored relationship between God and man.

Dominion of sin and Death has been conquered

In Christ Jesus, Jeshua, death has been conquered. He paid the ransom by giving his body to his Father. If Jesus is God, because God can not die and is an eternal Spirit. Than Jesus could not be taken out of the dead and his body raised to be the body showing wounds. Without dying there could be no he resurrection. And if there is no resurrection, then we have no hope.

Christ Resurrected  47

Christ Resurrected (Photo credit: Waiting For The Word)

If Jesus wasn’t raised, if the tomb was not empty or when Jesus his body would have been stolen out of the grave, than there would be nothing to hold on to accept Jesus was risen. Several people saw Jesus after he had died. They were convinced they had really seen him.  Many were willing to die for what had happened, because they were convinced “death now could be reversed”. Now they could believe sin shall not have dominion over them nor us who believe, because from that day onwards we have come under grace. (Romans 6:14)
In case Jesus’ death didn’t pay our penalty for sin, then we “are still in our sins.” And when Jesus was not taken out of death by his Father, meaning that there did not took place a resurrection, then all those who have died before us … no matter what they did …shall have had nothing in their hope.

Isaiah promised that the dead would live (Isaiah 26:19) and Job knew that there would come a moment that he should not hide any more in Sheol. Abraham Isaac and Jesus believed in a God of the dead but also in the God of the living.

“31 But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, 32 I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not [the God] of the dead, but of the living.” (Matthew 22:31-32 ASV)

The one man who did all the time the will of his Father told the people about the hope they could have when he would be gone. If he would not be taken out of the dead, what reason would there be to believe what he said?

“39 And this is the will of him that sent me, that of all that which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. 40 For this is the will of my Father, that every one that beholdeth the Son, and believeth on him, should have eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.” (John 6:39-40 ASV)

“22 For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive. 23 But each in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; then they that are Christ’s, at his coming.” (1 Corinthians 15:22-23 ASV)

We should know that a great quality is been given to the life of man that cannot be matched by any other soul.

“And in none other is there salvation: for neither is there any other name under heaven, that is given among men, wherein we must be saved.” (Acts 4:12 ASV)

“3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which also I received: that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; 4 and that he was buried; and that he hath been raised on the third day according to the scriptures; 5 and that he appeared to Cephas; then to the twelve; 6 then he appeared to above five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain until now, but some are fallen asleep; 7 then he appeared to James; then to all the apostles; 8 and last of all, as to the [child] untimely born, he appeared to me also.” (1 Corinthians 15:3-8 ASV)

“20  But now hath Christ been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of them that are asleep. 21 For since by man [came] death, by man [came] also the resurrection of the dead.” (1 Corinthians 15:20-21 ASV)

By Jesus Christ assurance given

Through Jesus Christ we now have the assurance that we may fall asleep (die), but there shall come a moment, after he returned, that we shall be taken out of the graves and shall come to see what it means to receive the gift of God which is eternal life.

“For the wages of sin is death; but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” (Romans 6:23 ASV)

“It was necessary therefore that the copies of the things in the heavens should be cleansed with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.” (Hebrews 9:23 ASV)

“And without faith it is impossible to be well-pleasing [unto him]; for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and [that] he is a rewarder of them that seek after him.” (Hebrews 11:6 ASV)

In the resurrection of Christ Jesus our faith in him is of incredible value. Let us therefore recognise who that man was and is and follow his teachings and worship his Father, the Only One True God, Who gives life.

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Please find also to read:

  1. God’s promises
  2. Belief of the things that God has promised
  3. Israel God’s people
  4. Tu B’Shvat, the holiday of the trees
  5. Passover and Liberation Theology
  6. Commemorating the escape from slavery
  7. Being sure of their deliverance
  8. Deliverance and establishement of a theocracy
  9. Do not be afraid. Good news because a Saviour has been born
  10. Bringing Good News into the world
  11. God’s salvation
  12. Waiting for God’s Salvation
  13. Ember and light the ransomed of Jehovah
  14. Jesus Messiah
  15. Jesus Christ, Jeshua, Messiah, Jahushua
  16. Seeing Jesus
  17. Jesus begotten Son of God #4 Promised Prophet and Saviour
  18. Jesus begotten Son of God #10 Coming down spirit or flesh seed of Eve
  19. Jesus begotten Son of God #5 Apsotle, High Priest and King
  20. Jesus begotten Son of God #14 Beloved Preminent Son and Mediator originating in Mary
  21. Jesus begotten Son of God #18 Believing in inhuman or human person
  22. Anointing of Christ as Prophetic Rehearsal of the Burial rites
  23. Day of remembrance coming near
  24. 14 Nisan a day to remember #1 Inception
  25. 14 Nisan a day to remember #2 Time of Jesus
  26. 14 Nisan a day to remember #3 Before the Passover-feast
  27. 14 Nisan a day to remember #4 A Lamb slain
  28. 14 Nisan a day to remember #5 The Day to celebrate
  29. 14-15 Nisan and Easter
  30. Around the feast of Unleavened Bread
  31. Shabbat Pesach service reading 1/2
  32. The son of David and the first day of the feast of unleavened bread
  33. A Jewish Theocracy
  34. Observance of a day to Remember
  35. Around the feast of Unleavened Bread
  36. Observance of a day to Remember
  37. Pesach and solidarity 
  38. A Holy week in remembrance of the Blood of life
  39. Seven days of Passover
  40. On the first day for matzah
  41. Servant for the truth of God
  42. The Anointed One and the first day of No Fermentation
  43. How is it that Christ pleased God so perfectly?
  44. Wishing to do the will of God
  45. For the Will of Him who is greater than Jesus
  46. Self inflicted misery #3 A man given to suffer for us
  47. The Seed Of The Woman Bruised
  48. The redemption of man by Christ Jesus
  49. Imprisonment and execution of Jesus Christ
  50. Death of Christ on the day of preparation
  51. A Messiah to die
  52. Swedish theologian finds historical proof Jesus did not die on a cross
  53. Impaled until death overtook him
  54. Why 20 Nations Are Defending the Crucifix in Europe
  55. Jesus three days in hell
  56. Christ having glory
  57. Salvation, trust and action in Jesus #3 as a Christian
  58. Your Sins Are Forgiven
  59. A Great Gift commemorated
  60. High Holidays not only for Israel
  61. Festival of Freedom and persecutions
  62. After the Sabbath after Passover, the resurrection of Jesus Christ
  63. Proclaiming shalom, bringing good news of good things, announcing salvation
  64. Jesus is risen
  65. Risen With Him
  66. Easter: Origins in a pagan Christ
  67. Eostre, Easter, White god, chocolate eggs, Easter bunnies and metaphorical resurrection
  68. Peter Cottontail and a Bunny laying Eastereggs
  69. Altered to fit a Trinity or Ishtar the fertility goddess
  70. Who Celebrates Easter as Religious Holiday

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Other interesting articles:

  1. Welcome to Easter 2014
  2. Walk with Jesus: Matthew 27 He who overcame
  3. Gethsemane
  4. Yeshua thanks his father through prayer
  5. Pesach
  6. Good Friday or Passover?
  7. What’s Good about Good Friday?
  8. When Was Jesus Crucified?
  9. Jesus Died
  10. “Christ Is Our Passover Lamb” / The Message of the High Sabbath beginning the eve of March 25, 2013
  11. Ransom for allom
  12. Holy Trifecta: Good Friday, Passover, Resurrection Sunday
  13. Thoughts About Easter
  14. It Did Not End In the Grave
  15. Tree of Jesus Life, the Risen Christ, (a)
  16. On Easter and The Resurrection of Jesus
  17. Easter Questions and Answers
  18. What Happened on Easter?
  19. The Truth About Easter
  20. The Easter Story of the Resurrection
  21. Jesus is alive, the tomb is empty.
  22. The Empty Tomb
  23. He is Risen! What Christians Believe About Easter, and Why
  24. The Significance of the Resurrection – Jesus Arose Where He Died
  25. The Glory of Easter Part 1 + The Glory of Easter Part 2
  26. “The Resurrection”
  27. The Resurrection of Jesus X 4
  28. Even Resurrection Pauses For Sabbath Rest
  29. The Power of His Resurrection
  30. The Resurrection of Jesus Christ
  31. The Resurrection is Believable
  32. He is not here, He is risen, just as He said
  33. When Nothing Meant All
  34. Pass Over Now
  35. Does Christianity Have Pagan Roots? (Part 1) How Did “Easter” Originate? | god from the machine
  36. Does Christianity Have Pagan Roots? (Part 2) The Pagan Myth Myth… No, I’m Not Stuttering

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  • Today is the beginning of the biblical new year (biblethingsinbibleways.wordpress.com)
    Happy New Year!!!! Biblically speaking of course.
    Even though January 1st is celebrated as the beginning of the year over the world, as Christians, we need to consider that the Biblical New Year is far more important to us, than a day that was picked by the Romans.
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    The month of Abib/Aviv does not coincide with a month in the standard western calendar in any way. This means that the 1st day of the Biblical Year could fall on any day in the season of March/April. The biblical calendar is not one which is set in paper, but which is set in the heavens. When our Creator made the Sun, Moon & Stars, He proclaimed “let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years”.
  • Understanding Passover (wqad.com)
    Passover, also called Pesach, is the Jewish festival celebrating the exodus of the Israelites from Egyptian slavery in 1200s B.C.The word Passover comes from the idea that God passed over the houses of the Israelites, who had marked their doorposts to signify that they were children of God.
  • Feasts of Passover and Unleavened Bread (Deut 16:1-16:8) (efinne1540.wordpress.com)
    Abib is often called Nisan and usually refers to our April. Here the Passover is to be celebrated at ‘the place that Yahweh will choose as a dwelling for his name.’ It will not be in the towns that Yahweh is giving to them. The 7 day unleavened bread feast is called the ‘bread of affliction.’ No leftover meat may be eaten the next day. Sunset was the time of the meal because you left Egypt at sunset. There was to be a solemn assembly on the 7th day with no work done.
  • Chag Pesach Kasher v’Sameach : חַג כָשֵׁר וְשָׂמֵחַ (jewsdownunder.wordpress.com)
    The journey initiated during Pesach, that of a nation of slaves racing towards freedom, reaches its climax with the festival of Shavuot, without a rendezvous with God at Mt. Sinai. Here the Jews’ new-found freedom finds its purpose.The agricultural significance of Pesach is that it marks the start of the early harvest period in the land of Israel. The harvesting of the barley grain was marked by a special offering of the Omer commencing on the second day of Pesachand continuing for forty-nine days, concluding at Shavuot.
  • Rosh Chodesh Nisan (glehrer.wordpress.com)
    We learned that Dayenu in hebrew means “enough” and when we sing the song Dayenu at the end of our seder it is because we are thanking God for our freedom, shabbat, the torah, and the miracles he performed to get us out of Egypt when we were slaves. The story taught us about getting ready for the seder, and just when you think you’ve done enough to prepare for Pesach, there is usually at least one more thing you can do to make your seder even more special.
  • Nisan: The Month of Redemption; Adar: a leap year, i.e., to add an extra month, Such a year that has 13 (lunar) months is called a “pregnant year” (שנה מעוברת), indicating a state of being from which a new reality, specifically, the next month – the mont (guapotg.wordpress.com)
    In the Torah, the month of Nisan is referred to as “the month of spring.” From the verse, “Guard the month of spring and make Pesach for HaShem your G-d,” the sages learn of the mitzvah to make a leap year, i.e., to add an extra month (a second month of Adar) when necessary, to ensure that the holiday of Pesach always falls in the season of spring.
  • Passover Guide for the Perplexed, 2014 (algemeiner.com)
    The Passover legacy constitutes the foundation of Judaism, and is therefore included in most Jewish blessings (“in memory of the Exodus”). Passover symbolizes the rejuvenation of nature and mankind, spiritually and physically, individually and collectively/nationally.  Passover stipulates that human rejuvenation – just like the rejuvenation of nature – must be driven by memory/history/roots.
  • The Evolution Of Passover – Past To Present (jewishengagement.wordpress.com)
    The first Passover’s preparation and celebration is described in Exodus 12:1-28. In a nutshell, the Israelites were commanded to take an unblemished lamb, watch over it and then slaughter it on the 14th day of Nisan marking the doorposts and lintels of their homes with its blood. They were instructed to roast it over a fire in its entirety and eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. They were to eat hurriedly with their clothes on, sandals on their feet and staff in their hands within the confines of their homes.
  • Being Filled (mymorningmeditations.com)
    We celebrated Easter this year with our community of Christian and Jewish interfaith families. Our minister started off by pointing out that Easter is not in the Bible, and that our holiday traditions make reference to ancient goddesses, and the fertility rites of spring. She then gathered the children together and talked to them about the Buddhist metaphor of a cup of tea representing the comforting memories of life after the tea bag (or body) is gone. She’s not your typical minister.Next, our rabbi gave an adult sermon about the themes of intimacy, transcendence and unity in the story of the resurrection of Jesus. Somehow, the idea of life beyond death, of renewal and regeneration, seemed completely universal to me as he spoke. As a Jew, I do not feel I need to believe in a messiah or a personal savior in order to celebrate these Easter messages. Our rabbi spent his career at Georgetown, knows his gospels, and has been called a “closet Catholic” by Catholic friends. And yet, he’s an erudite, dedicated and deeply spiritual Jew. He’s not your typical rabbi.
  • The April 15th Blood Moon Eclipse Coincides with The Exact Date & Hours of The Crucifixion (banoosh.com)
    When it mentions here that darkness covers the land, is that a reference to a Solar Eclipse that occurred at the exact hour of the Crucifixion?
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Easter: Origins in a pagan Christ

For many of the faithful, god-fearing Christians around the world, the resurrection of the Christ is central to that faith they hold so dear. Every year around March-April dramas are re-enacted commemorating the Passion, Death and Resurrection of Jesus put on by devotees as a form of renewal. Like everything else that goes with religious matters, most Xians are blissfully ignorant about the true origins of this, the central theme of their faith. Coloured eggs are given to friends and the bunny is the animal associated with Easter but little thought is spared for the study of the roots of these traditions and the relationship Xianity shares with the “pagan” world it forever disrespects.

 

Horus

Horus (Photo credit: waywuwei)

The truth of Easter’s origins is not helped by the decontextualised way many Eurocentric researchers analyse history. Most people who write about Easter trace the name to a Mother Goddess whose name in various European traditions was Astarte, Ishtar, Ashtoreth, Cybele, Demeter, Ceres, Aphrodite, Venus, and Freya. The name Easter derives from the Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring Eostre or Ostara. While these many rivers all contributed to the Easter celebrations, we should stop ignoring the African river from which they flowed.

Easter is an ancient spring solstice festival – the same spring solstice festival that gave us Carnival and Phagwa – involving the death and resurrection of the husband of the Great Earth Mother Goddess. This resurrection, far from being a miraculous historical event that occurred two thousand odd years ago, is a symbolic spiritual renewal that has its origins in the dim mists of the earliest human societies in Africa.

The Xian commemoration of Easter stems from this spiritual observance, only to be perverted into a myth of an historical death and resurrection of the biblical Jesus who then appoints a successor in the form of Peter. This myth was cleverly constructed for one purpose and one purpose only, the usurping and maintaining of political power. This point was well explored by Elaine Pagels and need not be dealt with here [see also the essay “Orthodox” Christianity and the birth of European Nationalism]

Xianity’s Easter, the resurrection of Christ Jesus is just a retelling of the Dramas of the Egyptian Yusir/Osiris and the Babylonian Bel, which in turn was a retelling of the symbolic death of the Great Mother of the primordial clan so that the community may survive. It is also bound up with the Nile Valley African’s concept of creation and their observations of the sun’s movements through various star constellations.

 

A statue of Isis nursing her son, housed in th...

A statue of Isis nursing her son, housed in the Louvre (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

According to the Egyptian account of creation only the primordial waters existed at first. Then Ra, the sun, came out of an egg (a flower, in some versions) that appeared on the surface of the water. Ra brought forth four children, the gods Shu and Geb and the goddesses Tefnut and Nut. Shu and Tefnut became the atmosphere. They stood on Geb, who became the earth, and raised up Nut, who became the sky. Ra ruled over all. Geb and Nut later had two sons, Set and Yusir/Osiris, and two daughters, Isis and Nephthys. Osiris succeeded Ra as king of the earth, helped by Isis, his sister-wife. Set, however, hated his brother, killed him and cut him up into 14 pieces. Isis finds and reassembles Yusir then embalmed her husband’s body with the help of the deity Anubis, who thus became the god of embalming. The powerful charms of Isis resurrected Osiris, who then ascended to sit at the side of the divine father Amen-Ra and who became king of the netherworld. Heru/Horus, who was the son of Osiris and Isis, later defeated Set in a great battle and became king of the earth.”

The parallels with the later Xian version are obvious. Indeed, in that short version of the story one can pick out the biblical concepts of the creation out of water, the warring twins, the Mother-Son consort, the death and resurrection of the saviour. Jesus was called the Christ, the Messiah; temporal kingly titles that came from “Karast” and “Messu”, the Egyptian titles for Yusir, Heru and Thoth. Among the ancient pre-Christian cultures, eggs symbolised creation, fertility, renewed life and resurrection. In ancient Egypt/Kemet and Persia during the spring festivals coloured eggs were eaten as part of the elaborate rituals in much the same way that they are being eaten today.

There are many traditions that involve the recreative power of the egg mostly related to the movement of the sun and stars across the heavens:

“As the sun climbed toward mid-day it was called Ra, great and strong. When the sun set in the west it was known as Atum the old man, or Horus on the horizon. As a solar-disk he was known as Aten. The sun was also said to be an egg laid daily by Geb, the ‘Great Cackler’ when he took the form of a goose.”

“Then there is the myth sometimes called the Birth and Flight of Horus. This tale, found in the Coffin Texts, is a combination of two stories. The first is the birth of Horus, and the second is a very old and fragmented myth that the sun burst out of an egg laid by a goose floating on the primordial waters before creation. The Birth and Flight of Horus begins just after Osiris’s death.”

Herodotus informs us that there was an annual festival in ancient Kemet/Egypt to commemorate the descent of King Rhampsinitus into the Underworld and his return to earth. Part of this ritual, apparently connected to the Yusirian Drama, was the enveloping of a priest in a shroud by two other priests, disguised as wolves. These two wolflike characters – portraying the divine guides of the dead – conducted the shrouded one to a temple of Auset/Isis outside the city where they left him. They would later return and lead the shrouded priest, who enacted the role of King Rhampsinitus, back into the city. On his return, the shrouded priest brought with him a napkin, supposedly given to him by Auset. Parts of this ceremony became the narrative in the Gospel of John where we read of visitors to Jesus’ tomb beholding a napkin and a shroud and two angels.

Then there is the Babylonian Drama of Bel; an ancient cuneiform tablet, now in the British Museum, produced about two thousand years before the Xian era, seems to have been used by Babylonian priests, one of whom acted as an announcer at the drama. John Jackson in his book “Man, God and Civilization”, mentions the works of Scottish scholar Arthur Findlay in which he relates the drama:

“The service would be started by the singing of a psalm similar to the Psalms of David in the Old Testament. Following one or more psalms, a priest would recite the appropriate prayer for the occasion. Then the announcer, holding a copy of the program, would arise and read out in a clear, loud voice

Scene I – “Bel is taken prisoner”

An actor representing Bel, the Babylonian Christ, was seen on the stage. Other actors dressed as soldiers would arrest the saviour-god. As the prisoner was led away by the squad of soldiers, the announcer again rose up and called out:

“Scene II – Bel is tried in the Hall of Justice”

At this point the scene of a trial is enacted. A judge was present, and witnesses testified for and against the prisoner, who was found innocent but sentenced to death anyway as in the similar case of Jesus in the Gospels. After the sentencing of the victim, the next scene was called out:

“Scene III – Bel is smitten”

This scene showed the jeering and baiting of the prisoner after the sentence of death had been passed. The next moment would be:

“Scene IV – Bel is led away to the mount”

The actor impersonating the victim was led away by guards to the sacred grove atop the hill. Then the announcing priest read:

“Scene V – With Bel are taken two malefactors, one of whom is released”

Actors representing the two criminals were seen on the stage and, after a trial, one was found guilty, the other innocent. The guilty victim was condemned to death and the innocent one released.

Although the death scene of saviour Bel was a part of the Babylonian Mysteries, this was not shown in the amphitheatre. This fact is explained by Arthur Findlay as follows:

The program does not contain a scene of the god’s death. This may be because it took place on a hill where he was hung on one of the trees in the sacred grove, or crucified, or slain on an altar, and so could not be enacted on the stage. By now, the theatre is empty and everyone has climbed to the top of the hill to witness the death scene. As the actor, taking the place of Bel, and the one representing the malefactor, are not actually killed, it may be that the death the saviour-god actually suffered was not enacted. This is unlikely and it is more probable that the tablet which has been found referred only to the performance in the amphitheatre, which accounts for the death scene not being included thereon. They were heavy and would not be brought away from the theatre. After the scene, when the two malefactors appeared and one was sent after Bel to be sacrificed, the people would know that, for the time being, the performance in the theatre was over. For that reason, and because the death scene was not taking place in the theatre, it is not engraved on the tablet.

After the death scene, the audience would return to the theatre and the announcer would declare:

“Scene VI – After Bel has gone to the mount, the city breaks into tumult”

in this scene the disorderly mob was shown rioting and screaming to exemplify the tumult that took place in the city. The next scene was then announced

“Scene VII – Bel’s clothes are carried away”

In this scene Bel’s body had returned from the mount and was seen on the stage by the multitude. His clothes were removed and his corpse was prepared for burial. The priest then announced the next act.

“Scene VIII – Bel goes down into the mount and disappears from life”

the stage being near the side of a hill, a tomb was dug and the body of Bel was placed therein. The announcement of the subsequent scene would be:

“Scene IX – A weeping woman seeks him at the gate of burial.”

The weeping woman, perhaps the mother, wife, or lover of the dead saviour, added a dramatic touch to this ancient mystery play. Then followed the climax, when the announcer read:

“Scene X – Bel is brought back to life”

The moving story of what happened in the last act of the Babylonian Passion Play and its effect on later religions has been vividly reconstructed by Arthur Findlay:

We can imagine the enthusiasm and excitement this announcement would cause. The people and there is thunderous noise and shouting. Then comes a hush and they reseat themselves awaiting in eager expectancy the denouement of this great drama. During the silence, the stone which has been pushed up against the tomb is seen to move and slowly it is pushed aside. Out of it comes Bel in his burial clothes. As he emerges from the tomb, the audience rises and shouts in its frenzy till all are hoarse. The great drama has reached its climax. Their god has re-appeared to them, death has been conquered, and he has secured for all life in the hereafter. As the actor could not re-appear as a spirit as did Bel after his sacrifice, the re-appearance had to be a physical one, just as the Christian drama depicts Jesus having left the tomb as a human being……This great religious service has never been forgotten. It was copied by the Greeks and is still performed in memory of Christ. It has been preserved for us throughout the Christian era in the four Gospels. The Christian dramatist made such changes in the details as were required so that people should believe that it was an historical event which happened in Jerusalem and that the actors were those who believed to have been disciples of Jesus.

This and the other dramas along the Nile Valley, bear testimony to the irrefutable fact that these mythical dramas and Passion Plays are of a much greater antiquity than Christianity. The Xian resurrected Jesus is only the resurrected Karast of the ancient Nile Valley. He was also the resurrected saviour of Persia, India, ancient America and a host of other cultures all well documented by John Jackson, Kersey Greaves, Rev CH Vail, Arthur Findlay and Godfrey Higgins.

The congregation in an Oriental Orthodox churc...

The congregation in an Oriental Orthodox church in India collects palm fronds for the Palm Sunday procession (the men of the congregation on the left of the sanctuary in the photo; the women of the congregation are collecting their fronds on the right of the sanctuary, outside the photo. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

We can now make sense of certain extra-religious Easter customs. The Easter Egg hunt, which is restricted to children, recalls part of the historian Plutarch’s narrative wherein he relates that it was children who told AST/Isis where to locate Yusir’s body. Thus, it is children who have the honour of searching for Yusir. The prize of the hunt, the Golden Egg is merely the great solar “Egg”, while the other prize, the silver egg is the full moon. Still another Easter tradition, eating hot cross buns evokes the celestial Mount Calvary upon which the “crossification” of the “sun” of god the very moment that its upward journey from the southern half of the celestial equator to the northern half separates it into two. Further, Palm Sunday, which commemorates Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem, his way strewn with palm leaves, in preparation of the Passover, can be interpreted in three ways:

 

  1. We can identify Jesus with the Kemetic/Egyptian Ra-Yiu, who as the Golden Ass, is a zootype of the sun
  2. It evokes the pre-Mosaic veneration of Ra-Yiu by the ancestors of the Israelites
  3. It symbolises Jesus’ power over Satan, who, in his original form as the evil Set, was depicted as an Ass. Remember that the name Satan itself comes from the Egyptian “Set-An”.

 

English: Palm Sunday in Sanok

Palm Sunday in Sanok (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Note also that in ancient Kemet/Egypt, the palm branch was viewed as a time symbol and its bifurcated leaves represented the equinox with its equal separation of day and night. The Palm Sunday procession then, symbolises Jesus the sun, Ra-Yiu, “passing over” the celestial equator on his ecliptic ascent at the equinox.

Further, because of the “wobble” created by the rotation of the earth around its axis, this event cannot take place at the exact time every year. This is why, with regard to the celebration of Easter the time varies from as early as March 22nd or as late as April 25th. In general, although not the strict rule, Easter is held on the Sunday after Pasach (Passover) which is usually the first Sunday after the first full moon of spring. It is actually the intentional Xian mis-keeping of Pasach for anti-Jewish purposes. Because Pasach is kept in accordance with a lunar-solar calendar rather than with a strictly solar calendar, Pasach will always occur on the full moon of the first Jewish month, which begins with the closest new moon to the vernal equinox (no earlier than March 10).

The Easter bunny or hare is another signpost to the celestial myths of pre-Christian Kemet. All over Africa the hare is a lunar animal because it never appears to close its eyes, making it a type of full moon. It’s also a zootype of Yusir/Osiris: as an animal that leaps up, it is identified with Yusir as he rises from the dead.

We have just glimpsed at the great antiquity and esoteric symbolism behind an event most of us simply took for granted. As always, it is not the intention to dismiss the bible and Xianity with simplistic views. It is about throwing light on a subject that for far too long has been simplified. In a subsequent essay we will examine the crucifixion from a slightly different perspective.

 

  • The Catholic Encyclopedia
  • The Encyclopedia Biblica
  • Tertullianus Against Marcion – Tertullian
  • History of Christianity
  • World’s Crucified Saviors – Rev C H Vail
  • Afrikan Origins of the Major World Religions – Prof. Yosef ben-Jochannan
  • African Origins of the Major “Western” Religions – Prof. Yosef ben-Jochannan
  • Holy Blood Holy Grail – Henry Lincoln, Michael Baigent
  • Messianic Legacy – Henry Lincoln, Michael Baigent
  • Echoes of the Old Darkland – Charles S. Finch MD
  • History of the First Council of Nice
  • Introduction to African Civilisations – John Jackson
  • Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth – John Jackson
  • Man, God and Civilisations – John Jackson
  • African Presence in Early Europe – edited by Dr. Ivan Van Sertima
  • Black Athena Vol. I – Martin Bernal
  • Ancient Egypt the Light of the World [2Vols.] – Gerald Massey
  • Gerald Massey’s Lectures – Gerald Massey
  • Dead Sea Scrolls Deception – Henry Lincoln
  • Who Is This King of Glory? A Critical Study of the Christus/Messiah Tradition — Alvin Boyd Kuhn
  • The Dictionary of Bible and Religion – editor William Gentz
  • Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Vol. I – Edward Gibbon
  • Forgery in Christianity – Joseph Wheless
  • The Women’s Encyclopedia of Myth and Secrets – Barbara G. Walker
  • The Dark Side of Christian History – Helen Ellerbie
  • Women, Food and Sex in History –Soledad de Montalvo [4 vols.]
  • The Passover Plot – Hugh Schonfield
  • James; the Brother of Jesus – Robert Eisenman
  • The Gnostic Gospels – Elaine Pagels
  • Personal interviews with the late elder Clemey George
  • The Secret Relationship between Blacks and Jews – edited by the Nation of Islam
  • African presence in Early Asia – Runoku Rashidi
  • The World’s 16 Crucified Saviours – Kersey Greaves

By Corey Gilkes
From RaceandHistory.com

 

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Please do find to read:

 

  1. Eostre, Easter, White god, chocolate eggs, Easter bunnies and metaphorical resurrection
  2. High Holidays not only for Israel
  3. 14-15 Nisan and Easter
  4. Death of Christ on the day of preparation
  5. Seven days of Passover
  6. Altered to fit a Trinity or Ishtar the fertility goddess
  7. Peter Cottontail and a Bunny laying Eastereggs
  8. Risen With Him
  9. Creation of the earth out of something
  10. Tu B’Shvat, the holiday of the trees
  11. Ember and light the ransomed of Jehovah
  12. Because men choose to go their own way
  13. Taking care of mother earth

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  • The History and Origins of Easter (personalcreations.com)
    Easter, which celebrates the resurrection from the dead of Jesus Christ, is a holiday actually based on an ancient Pagan ritual. Unlike most holidays, Easter does not fall on the same set date each year. Instead, Christians in the West celebrate Easter on the first Sunday after the full moon of the vernal equinox on March 21. Therefore, Easter is celebrated each year between March 22 and April 25. The exact origins of Easter are unknown, but some sources believe that the word “Easter” is taken from the Teutonic goddess of fertility and spring – Eostre. Easter has also been traced to the Latin words Hebdomada Alba – meaning white week – referencing Easter week in which white clothing is worn by people who get baptized.
  • Does Christianity Have Pagan Roots? (Part 2) The Pagan Myth Myth… No, I’m Not Stuttering (godfromthemachineblog.wordpress.com)
    Superman at times would use his super breath and blow really hard and it produced powerful wind.  And at the end of the first Superman movie, the 1978 version with Christopher Reeve, when Lois Lane dies, Superman flies around the earth so fast in the opposite direction of the earth’s spin that he changes the direction of the earth’s rotation and literally rewinds time so he is able to rescue Lois Lane before she dies*.  Then, in the early 1990’s, DC Comics ran the storyline “The Death of Superman” where Superman was killed in a battle with Doomsday, but Superman returned after a long hiatus.
  • Ultimate Resource of Egyptian Gods (costumesupercenter.com)
    The major deities controlled the most important aspects of life and the lesser deities were in charge of specific duties, i.e, protecting the crops. As it was in ancient times, some groups still worship the gods and goddesses, one such being Isis, goddess of women and magic.
  • Does Christianity Have Pagan Roots? (Part 1) How Did “Easter” Originate? (godfromthemachineblog.wordpress.com)
    In one such blog article I read at this time last year, the author performed the most death-defying acrobatics I’ve ever read to attempt to show how Christianity is just a bootlegged copy of pagan religions.  The comments below the article praised the author’s brilliance.  One comment that stayed with me was a woman who unabashedly wrote: “There you go making sense again!”  Sadly, the article wasn’t just death-defying but logic- and history-defying too.
  • The Truth About Easter (politicsandthebible.wordpress.com)
    Easter is one of the biggest holidays in the Christian religion, along with Christmas and Good Friday.  However it is also has many myths and misconceptions surrounding it.  Some are honest mistakes and others are straight out lies.
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    If you remember the controversy surrounding The Da Vinci Code, part of the premise of the story was that much of the Christian faith was removed or added over time.  So much editing had occurred that there was very little evidence pointing to it except for a small circle of true believers who knew better and the hierarchy in the Vatican who didn’t want people to know the truth.  One date when much of this editing occurred is 325 AD, during the Council of Nicaea, which is when most skeptics believe the Bible was compiled and most of the major tenets of Christianity were added.  The problem with this is that the resurrection was very much a part of the religious creed for the 1st century Church.  Cornelius Tacitus, one of the best Roman historians of the 1st century, mentions in the 15th book of his Annals a “mischievous superstition” was held by “a class hated for abominations, called Christians.”  What could have this superstition been?  Jesus proclaiming to be God?  Well the emperors and several characters in Greco-Roman myths already did that, so nothing there that’s too outrageous.  That he did miracles?  The ancient world was full of miracle workers and performers of various wonders.  Jesus shouldn’t have even made it on the radar if that was the reason.  Could it be his resurrection?  That seems to be the only one that fits.  Tacitus was known for being skeptical of resurrection tales and the fact that people in a new religion with a deity that had died and rose again would have caught his attention particularly since Nero used them as a scapegoat.  Josephus, a contemporary Jewish historian, also mentions the resurrection as well.  “On the third day he appeared to them restored to life…”  Some have argued that this text has been tampered with, but it should be noted the Arabic version of the text also includes it but is over all less biased in tone.  Therefore we can be assured that Josephus did faithfully record the Christian belief of Christ’s resurrection.  Whether he believed it or not is up for debate.  And finally we have I Corinthian 15:1-11.  Often described as the first creed to be used by the Church, it adamantly recounts the death and resurrection of Christ.  Considering this epistle would have been written in the 40s or 50s AD, it is quite clear that the early Church believed in the resurrection since the beginning.
  • Did Christians really ‘steal’ Easter? (religion.blogs.cnn.com)
    Just because words in different languages sound the same doesn’t mean they are related. In Swedish, the word “kiss” means urine.

    But the biggest issue for Christians is the claim that Jesus’ resurrection – the faith’s central tenet – might have pagan roots.

    Even apart from whether or not Jesus actually rose from the dead, many Christians claim that the very idea is unique.

    There are other biblical examples of people being raised from the dead – think of Jesus raising Lazarus. But those people went on to die again. Only Jesus was raised from the dead to live forever.

  • Jesus vs Horus Myth…The True Facts (faithgracetorah.net)
    Everyday there are thousands, possibly hundreds of thousands if not millions of people trying to disprove the Bible and mystify the story of Jesus to where they will try to connect him to some other god of another culture such as the Egyptians. Other times, people don’t even try to connect him to another god, but rather they form pseudo comparisons with people such as Ceasar. But are these stories, myths, and comparisons true or is it just some pseudo scholarship gone viral?! Today I’d like to tackle one of these myths in particular: the Jesus – Horus connection.
  • Easter Tradition: Egg Hunt (historytalks.wordpress.com)
    The egg was a symbol of the rebirth of the earth in Pagan celebrations of spring and was adopted by early Christians as an Easter symbol of the resurrection of Jesus. The egg symbol was likened to the tomb from which Christ arose. Traditionally the game is associated with Easter and Easter eggs (Easter egg hunt), but it has also been popular with spring time birthday parties.

    At least since the 17th century the idea of the Easter Bunny to bring the Easter eggs has been known.

    The novelty of the introduction of Easter egg hunts into England is evidenced by A. E. Housman’s inaugural lecture as Professor of Latin at University College, London in 1892, in which he said, “In Germany at Easter time they hide coloured eggs about the house and garden that the children may amuse themselves in discovering them.”

  • Happy Easter (zodiaclivetarotreading.com)
    The term ‘Easter‘ is not of Christian origin. It is another form of Astarte, one of the titles of the Chaldean goddess and also it links to the pagan goddess Eostre (a.k.a. Eastre). She was the Great Mother Goddess of the Saxon people in Europe. Similarly, the “dawn goddess of fertility was known as Ostare, Eostre and Ausos. Similar Goddesses were known by other names in other cultures and were celebrated in the springtime. Some were:

    • Aphrodite, the Greek Goddess
    • Hathor from ancient Egypt;
    • Ostara a Norse GoddessEnhanced by Zemanta

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