Tag Archives: 1947

2,000 year old Bible fragments found

In 1947 at the harsh and remote site in the West Bank, known as Qumran, several scrolls were found. It was the most important religious texts in the Western world.

The Dead Sea Scrolls comprised more than 800 documents made of animal skin, papyrus and even forged copper and not only could give us an idea how those sacred texts were also preserved by oral tradition. We namely could see how translations made until then were very much in line with what then was found.

Among the texts found were parts of every book of the Hebrew canon or Old Testament — except the book of Esther. The scrolls then found also contained a collection of previously unknown hymns, prayers, commentaries, mystical formulas and the earliest version of the Ten Commandments. Most were written between 200 B.C. E. and the period prior to the failed Jewish revolt to gain political and religious independence from Rome that lasted from C.E. 66 to 70 — predating by 8 to 11 centuries the oldest previously known Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible.

Yesterday the news spread that the attempt of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) in cooperation with the Civil Administration’s Archaeology Department managed to survey all the caves which were considered a safe haven as the war between the Roman Empire and the Judean rebels led by Shimon Bar Kokhba raged around 130 CE.

Some fragments of OT minor prophets written in Greek, but have God’s Name in Hebrew.

“This was probably a way to show the importance of the name of God,”

Dr. Oren Ableman from the IAA Dead Sea Scroll Unit said.

“Based on the script, we dated them to the end of the first century BCE, which means that by the time it was brought to the cave, the scroll was already a century old.”

Beatriz Riestra of the IAA Dead Sea Scrolls Unit said, referring to the earliest Greek translation of the Bible from the third century BCE:

“In this manuscript, we can see the effort of the translators to remain closer to the original Hebrew compared to what happened with the Septuagint,”

A rare cache from the Bar Kokhba period. Photo: Dafna Gazit, Israel Antiquities Authority

Rare cache from the Bar Kokhba period. Photo: Dafna Gazit, Israel Antiquities Authority

Together with the manuscript, the archaeologists found several coins minted by the Jewish rebels under Bar Kokhba’s leadership, carrying the writing:

“Year 1 for the redemption of Israel.”
Donald T. Ariel, head of the IAA’s Coin Department, said:
“Coins are an expression of sovereignty. Minting coins meant to be free.”

They were found at the same location where a 6,000 year old skeleton was found (a young child carefully buried in a blanket) and a 10,000 year old basket.

The basket as found in Muraba‘at Cave. (Yoli Schwartz, Israel Antiquities Authority)

The basket as found in Muraba‘at Cave. (Yoli Schwartz, Israel Antiquities Authority)

“By moving two flat stones, we discovered a shallow pit intentionally dug beneath them, containing a skeleton of a child placed in a fetal position,”

IAA prehistorian Ronit Lupu said in a press release.

“It was obvious that whoever buried the child had wrapped him up and pushed the edges of the cloth beneath him, just as a parent covers his child in a blanket.”

Hananya Hizmi, head staff officer of the Civil Administration’s Archaeology Department in Judea and Samaria, said:
“As early as the late 1940s, we became aware of the cultural heritage remains of the ancient population of the Land of Israel, with the first discoveries of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Now, in this national operation, which continues the work of previous projects, new finds and evidence have been discovered and unearthed that shed even more light on the different periods and cultures of the region.”
“The finds attest to a rich, diverse and complex way of life, as well as to the harsh climatic conditions that prevailed in the region hundreds and thousands of years ago,”
he said.

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  2. A Book to trust #10 Archaeology confirming or denying claims of the Bible #1 Old Testament
  3. A Book to trust #13 Books for education and adjustment
  4. A Book to trust #23 Comparing Ancient Biblical Manuscripts
  5. Many skeptics who raise objections to the Bible its veracity
  6. Archaeology and the Bible researcher 3/4
  7. Dead Sea Scrolls available at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls digitization project
  8. Fragment of Nehemiah in Dead Sea Scrolls
  9. Simcha Jacobovici finding references to Jesus in Dead Sea Scrolls
  10. Ancient Jewish scroll now legible
  11. History and Archaeology sciences looked at #2 Co-operative of excavators, archaeologists, anthropologists, historians and culture morphologists
  12. Operation Scroll offering 12th cave findings
  13. The Crown of Aleppo and missing pages
  14. New Dead Sea Scroll fragments found in Israel
  15. Another way looking at a language #5 Aramic, Hebrew and Greek
  16. Miracles of revelation and of providence 2 Providence
  17. Dead Sea scrolls at Drents Museum in Assen
  18. World’s tiniest bible to be presented at Israel Museum for 50th anniversary

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The corpus separatum and Mahmoud Abbas

When the United Nations voted on a partition plan for a Jewish State of Israel and Arab State of Palestine in 1947, it clearly marked a corpus separatum, a distinct international entity to hold Greater Bethlehem and Greater Jerusalem.

The Arab countries were not pleased with the UN proposal and rejected it. By May 1948 a military coalition of Arab states launched an attack on the new State of Israel.

Arab Legion soldier in ruins of Hurva.jpg

Arab Legion soldier standing in ruins of the most sacred Synagogue, the “Hurva”, Old City.

10 months of fighting, interrupted by several truce periods, took place mostly on the former territory of the British Mandate and for a short time also in the Sinai Peninsula and southern Lebanon. At the end of the war Jordan illegally seized control of three-quarters of the corpus separatum including all of Greater Bethlehem and the eastern half of Jerusalem, in a move that the world did not recognize. Israel took control of Jaffa, Lydda and Ramle area, Galilee, some parts of the Negev, a wide strip along the Tel AvivJerusalem road, western half of Greater Jerusalem and made it its capital and took some territories in the West Bank.  Jordan expelled all of the Jews from the area it seized and granted all non-Jews Jordanian citizenship in an outrageous antisemitic act in 1954.

The Jordanians gave Jordanian citizenship to the Palestinians in the newly named “West Bank” and “East Jerusalem.” They would make no attempt to give them independence or sovereignty throughout their period of illegal control until 1967.

The world one moment thought that the third world war would have started, and as such classes were suddenly interrupted and lots of people went in front of the television screen to follow the  June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, which was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighbouring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.

Jordan (and the Palestinians who had Jordanian citizenship) who attacked Israel again  subsequently lost all of the “West Bank” and Greater Bethlehem and eastern Jerusalem. Israel took control of the area, and expanded the borders of Jerusalem in 1980, declaring

Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel.

On September 27, 2018 the acting-President of the Palestinian Authority Mahmoud Abbas spoke to the United Nations General Assembly presenting it as if Jerusalem always was and should be the capital of the Palestinian state. Though he may forget that the Jordanians controlled the city and made no efforts to give it to Palestinians (from 1949 to 1967)

While Israel has permitted the Jordanian Waqf to have administrative responsibilities for Muslim holy sites in the Old City of Jerusalem (and no King Abdullah, Jordan has NO responsibility for Christian sites), the ownership, control and sovereignty of the city is Israel’s.

The world should remember that Jerusalem has never been a Palestinian capital and from old ancient times it was already declared to be the capital of the Hebrew people.

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Filed under Headlines - News, History, Political affairs, World affairs